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Crime Prevention Through Urban Design
Transcript of Crime Prevention Through Urban Design
problem? Bollards The Product Strategies Shrubs/Trees Crime
Design The National Crime Prevention
Institute on CPTED: "The proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life. We have made the "Broken Windows" theory an integral part of our law enforcement strategy. This theory says that little things matter.
As James Q. Wilson describe is, "If a factory or office window is broken, passersby observing it will conclude that no one cares or no one is in charge. In time, a few will begin throwing rocks to break more windows. Soon all the windows will be broken, and now passersby will think that, not only is no in charge of the building, but the street as well."...
There's a continuum of disorder. Obviously murder and graffiti are two vastly different crimes. But they are part of the same continuum, and a climate that tolerates one is more likely to tolerate the other. Broken Windows Theory Physical Indicators of Crime With the dispersal of the middle class following WWII to suburban settings, many cities began to see an influx in the crime rates. Increasing Crime Rates History History Cont'd - Crime is specific and situational.
- The distribution of crime is related to land use
and transportation networks.
- Offenders are opportunistic and commit crimes
in places they know well.
- Opportunity arises from daily routines and
- Places with crime are often places without
observers or guardians. Criminal Minds Resources The ultimate goal of CPTED is to create more stable communities, which have these characteristics:
- a constant, or increasing, property value
- a higher proportion of owner occupied lots
- fewer vacant lots
- fewer building, zone, fire, and health code
- increasing contributions of taxes or fees Measuring Success Many urban planners tried to combat this phenomenon with solutions drawn from urban design. Elizabeth Wood- Chicago Housing Authority, 1960
-Design and surveability should be considered
hand in hand in terms of design. Jane Jacobs - Death and Life of Great American Cities 1961
-Clear demarcation between public and private spaces.
"Eyes on the street" Oscar Newman - Defensible space people, and the violent city 1973
-Principles widely adopted but with mixed success.
-Move away from high rise buildings
Clear demarcation between public and private spaces.
-How many people use the same entrance?
Inter-accessible lifts, staircases, and exits promote crime. C. Ray Jeffery - Coined CPTED 1971
Mixed social, behavioral, political, physcological, and biological factors. Argued that the internal environment of the brain was as important as the external physical environment. -Reduces penetrability
-symbolic or realistic barrier Walls -Defines perimeter
-Limits access and views
-Buffers and separates land use. Fences -Define perimeter, limit access, and define spaces.
-Screens and encloses Gates -Serves as an obstacle
-Limits access -Separates and controls traffic
-Defines areas which adds to use. Paving Materials -Helps establish zones and boundaries.
-Can define areas.
-Material continuity adds to user appeal. Slopes and Berms - Separates and buffers.
- Discourages intrusion.
- Directs pedestrians.
- Functions as sitting or
play elements. Lighting Effectiveness -The CPTED approach is widely accepted by law enforcement internationally
-CPTED cannot literally prevent crimes from happening
-Environmental changes aim to encourage or deter certain behaviors
-CPTED Principals provide a cost effective crime prevention strategy
-Studies have shown CPTED to decrease
crime rates -Increases surveillance
-Directs flow of traffic Applicable Design Solutions: Crime Prevention Strategies Natural Surveillance Increases perception of visibility
Use existing traffic to your advantage
Entrances can define surveillance areas
Correct lighting Concepts of Crime Prevention Territoriality
Target Hardening Natural Access Control Limits access and alters flow
Use clearly marked points of entry
Structures can manipulate traffic flow
Strategic plantings can deter intrusion
Deny roof access
Use gates and fences Territory Reinforcement Promote social control with spatial definition and improved concern
Sense of ownership, owners are more likely to protect a space
Well kept areas communicate caring and watchful users (Broken Window Theory)
Plants may give a feeling of an attractive cared for space Maintenance An obvious sign of property ownership
Perceived image of a space can make users feel fearful or secure
Broken Window Theory Activity Support Specific uses for specific areas promotes attention
Increase risk of criminal detection
Puts focus on who should and shouldn't be in a space
'Caution Children at Play' signs Moffat, R. (1983), "Crime prevention through environmental design - a management perspective" Rudy Giuliani: http://www.nber.org/papers/w9061 http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_MX8YaSq4vy4/S-HHmcg3g_I/AAAAAAAAAJA/P-msqOsXMPs/s1600/rudy_meet_press_eyes.jpg http://valentinscrimeblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/broken_windows.jpg www.ncpc.gov Low/middle class areas
Larger housing complexes
Superblocks closed to traffic
Uniform buildings and spaces
Lack of spatial definition
Layout lack composition Newton, Defensible Space. www.affordablehousinginstitute.org/ http://img2-1.timeinc.net/toh/i/step-by-step/12/02-garden-gate/build-fence-gate-x.jpg http://www.kirsch-korff.com/Assets/images/fence11_modern_horizontal_redwood_west_los_angeles.jpg http://188.8.131.52/~bigtrees/bigtreeblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/emeraldgreen-225x300.jpg http://www.sinoconcept.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/stainless-steel-security-bollards.jpg http://greenparking.reimaginingcleveland.org/files/2010/03/PerviousDrivewayCropped.gif http://media.dexigner.com/article/16141/Schreder_Lighting_USA_To_Pioneer_LED_Street_Lighting.jpg http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8U8ObTP81QsC&oi=fnd&pg=PA153&dq=crime+prevention+through+environmental+design&ots=0yYo-wjb_h&sig=e3vnamUU3J6zhhh4eCi9TmTIcAU#v=onepage&q=crime%20prevention%20through%20environmental%20design&f=false Newman, Oscar. (1972). Defensible Space http://www.lancastercsc.org/CPTED/Natural_Surveillance.html http://www.lancastercsc.org/CPTED/Natural_Access.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/adaptations/Territory_%28animal%29 http://nortonbooks.typepad.com/everydaysociology/2008/01/broken-windows.html http://www.northernmanagement.com/pages/apartments--townhomes/st.-cloud/oak-haven-estates.php http://www.sheknows.com/parenting/articles/824691/playground-safety Jeb Gordon & Cody Kilch
Spring 2013 Ferguson LAND 4060 Target Hardening Overall increase of security measures
Ensuring locked doors/windows
Results in tougher situations for crime to be achieved
Looking Forward Essential ingredients: Territorial definition and a successful social fiber
Influence rather than control behaviors by manipulating the environment