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Echoes of Atlantic Revolutions WHAP
Transcript of Echoes of Atlantic Revolutions WHAP
AP World History
Effects of Atlantic
Revolution to Revolutions
The Abolition of Slavery
Slavery was largely ended around the word between 1780 and 1890.
Enlightenment led to criticizing of slavery
AM and FR Revs focused attention on slaves' lack of liberty and equality.
Religious groups, like the Quakers, became vocal in opposition to slavery.
Growing idea that slavery wasn't necessary for economic progress.
Abolition in British Empire
3 major slave rebellions in the BR West Indies showed their discontent, and the suppresion of the revolts apalled people in mainland Britain.
1807: BR forbade sale of slaves within empire.
1834: BR freed all salves
BR inspired other nations to do the same.
Most Latin American countries abolished slavery by the 1850s
Even Russian serfs were freed in 1861.
Usually there was little improvement in the economic and political lives of former slaves.
Most former Russian serfs were impoverished.
The unwillingness of former slaves to work on plantations led to new wave of human migration.
Especially from India and China.
In Africa, more slaves were used to produce export crops.
Islamic world kept slavery, but encouraged the freeing of slaves.
Nations and Nationalism
Revolutions led to the idea of a nation
The idea existed that humans are divided into separate nations, each with a distinct culture, territory, and independent political life.
Before the 1800s, foreign rule wasn't seen as unusual.
How did we get to this new view?
Science weakened the hold of religion.
Migration to cities or abroad weakened local ties.
Printing press (shoutout to Johann Gutenberg) led to standardization of languages.
Now viewed nation as a reawakening of older cultural identities.
Nationalism very powerful in 19th century.
Inspired the political unification of Germany and Italy.
Inspired separatist movements by Greeks, Servs, Czechs, Hungarians, Poles, Ukranians, Irish, and Jews.
Nationalism also led governments to try to instill national loyalty in its citizens.
Ideologies of nationalism:
Civic nationalism: identified the nation with a particular territory and encouraged assimilation.
Some, like Germany, will define the nation in racial terms.
Rise of Feminism
Feminist movement developed in Europe and North America.
Euro Enlightenment thinkers sometimes challenged the idea that women were innately inferior.
FR Rev, women argued that liberty and equality must include women.
Olympe de Gouge's DORWAC.
Middle class women now had more education and women increasingly joined temperance movements, charities, abolition movements, etc.
First organized movement was in Seneca Falls, NY 1848, and the focus by the 1870s was on suffrage (right to vote).
Most were peaceful protest, and became a mass movement in most industrialized nations by 20th century (19th amendment ratified in 1920).
Impact of Feminist Movement
New Zealand first to grant universal female suffrage in 1893.
Women admitted to universities
Literacy rates increased
Role of women discussed in modern society
There was also a negative reaction to feminism, however it still spread beyond Europe and the US.
Smaller Euro revolutions ocurred in 1830, 1848, and 1870.
Revs expressed ideals of republicanism, social equality, and liberation from foreign rule.
Led to increased voting rights, in some cases all men could vote ( US, Argentina).
Even RU had a constitutional movement in 1825.
--> Abolitionist, nationalist, and feminist movements.
Collection box for Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. Circa 1850.
"Abolition of Slavery in French Colonies, 1848" by Auguste François Biard (1849).
William Wilberforce (1759–1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.
image circulated during the Baptist War in Jamaica, 1832
A poster advertising a special chapel service to celebrate the Abolition of Slavery in 1838
Map of rebellions in BR West Indies
Seneca Falls Convention 1848