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OPTO 226 – Practice Management I lec 1
Transcript of OPTO 226 – Practice Management I lec 1
COURSE: OPTO 226 – Practice Management I
TUTOR: Nada Aldahlawi
Vision-Related Professions Optometrist
Doctors of optometry (ODs)
are the primary health care professionals for the eye.
examine, diagnose, treat, and manage diseases, injuries, and disorders of the visual system, the eye, and associated structures as well as identify
related systemic conditions affecting the eye.
Doctors of optometry
prescribe medications, low vision rehabilitation, vision therapy, spectacle lenses, and contact lenses and perform certain surgical procedures.
Optometrists counsel their patients regarding
surgical and non-surgical
options that meet their visual needs related to their occupations, avocations, and lifestyles.
Some optometrists complete an optional residency in a specific area of practice.
An optometrist has completed pre-professional undergraduate education in a college or university and 4 years of professional education at a college of optometry, leading to the doctor of optometry (OD) degree.
Optometrists are eye health care professionals state-licensed to diagnose and treat diseases and disorders of the eye and visual system.
Most optometrists are in general practice. Some specialize in work with the elderly, children, or partially sighted persons who need specialized visual devices.
Others develop and implement ways to protect workers eyes from on-the-job strain or injury. Some specialize in contact lenses, low vision, sports vision, or vision therapy. A few teach optometry, perform research, or consult.
Most optometrists are private practitioners who also handle the business aspects of running an office, such as developing a patient base, hiring employees, keeping paper and electronic records, and ordering equipment and supplies.
Most full-time optometrists work about 40 hours a week.
Many work weekends and evenings to suit the needs of patients, and are increasingly available for emergency calls as well.
According to the 2007 American Optometric Association Economic Survey,
the mean income from
per optometrist was $175,329.
Practitioners in midsized (
-person) groups have the highest average net income at $179,205
Those in small (
) practices earn an average of $176,944
Practitioners in large partnerships or groups
(six or more
) earn an average of $159,300
Practitioners associated with
earn an average of $100,704
For more information, refer to www.ama-assn.org/go/hpsalary.
In Saudi Arabia, Optometrist’s income range from about SR 55,000 - SR 407,173 yearly (about SR 4,500 – SR 33,931 monthly).
The average salary of optometrist ranges from about $51,690 to $183,500 per year ( about SR 4,300 – SR 15,291 monthly).
Employment of optometrists is expected to grow as fast as average for all occupations through 2016, in response to the vision care needs of a growing and aging population.
middle age, use of computers.
oldest age of cataracts, glaucoma, diabetes, and hypertension.
Greater recognition of the importance of vision care, with rising personal incomes and growth in employee vision care plans.
Also, laser surgery
preoperative and postoperative care
not require glasses or contacts for several years.
retire will create employment opportunities.
1-The characteristics of a profession, the legal limitation of optometry. And the major optometric organization.
2-Professional obligations and optometry.
3-Ethics in clinical optometry:
a-Ethics in clinical optometry.
b-Code of ethics.
c-Standard of conduct.
d-The optometric oath
4-Ethical decision making in clinical practice. a - Ethics, Values, Principles, & standards.
b-A frame work for ethical analysis and decision making.
Midterm I (2 March 2014)
5-Screening, testing, and community optometry.
a- Screening & testing
b- Screening as community outreach and education.
c-False-positive and false- negative results.
d-The benefits & harms of diagnostic information.
e-Confidentiality, discrimination, & conflict of interest.
6-Communicating with pts in the doctor-pt relationship. a- Communication & informed consent.
b-- Surrogate consent & confidentiality.
7-Special population and special ethical problems in optometric practice.
a-Children & adolescents - Consent, assent, & refusal of treatment
-Privacy & confidentiality.
-Adherence to treatment recommendation.
-Suspicion of child abuse or neglect.
b-The elderly. – - The at-risk elderly driver.
-The abused elder
-The cognitively impaired pt
-The nursing facility resident.
c-Ethics in LVR.-- - LV and the definition of legally blind
-Rehabilitation & respect for autonomy.
-Promoting pt’s independence and protecting the public’s safty.
-Confidentiality of information
-Access to LVR services
d-The institutionalized pt.- Basic respect for human rights
-Consent in a coercive setting.
-Privacy & confidentiality.
-Concern for the optometrists’ safty
e-Clinical optometry in a multicultural society.—
-Culture & health care
-Communication & pt care
-Language barriers in clinical optometry.
-Translating & interpreters in clinical practice
Midterm I (6 April 2014)
Presentation day (23 Feb 2014)
This course is designed to provide educational information about ethics of optometry practice, ethics and responsibilities of the healthcare practitioner, professional code of ethics and ethical issues that arise in the practice of Optometry.
This course will consist of two hour lecture sessions once a week for ten weeks. It will cover the characteristics of a profession, history of optometry, legal limitations of Optometry, major Optometric Organizations, ethics of optometry practice, ethics and responsibilities of the healthcare practitioner, professional code of ethics and ethical issues that arise in the practice of Optometry. Ethical case studies will be presented here. Students are expected to make presentations in this course. Principles of human interpersonal skills and effective patient communication skills will also be taught in this course.
-An Optometrists Guide to Clinical Ethics
By: R. Norman Bailey, O.D.
Elizabeth Heitman, Ph.D.
- Business Aspects of Optometry
By- John Glasseetrist
•The Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree requires the completion of a 4-year program at an accredited school or college of optometry.
different admission requirements.
4-year undergraduate degree,
at least 3 years of undergraduate study
Most optometry students hold a bachelors or higher degree.
Admission requirements for most schools include general
in biology, physics, and chemistry, in addition to organic chemistry, biochemistry, biology, microbiology (all with labs), calculus, statistics, English, psychology, social sciences, and other humanities.
Because a strong background in
is important, many applicants to optometry school major in a science such as
biology or chemistry, and laboratory experience
Applicants must take the Optometry Admissions Test
, which is designed to measure general academic ability and comprehension of scientific information.
strong academic commitment / logical reasoning/ way of thinking/ interpersonal communication, and empathy.
Most applicants take the test after their sophomore or junior year after taking courses in biology, general and organic chemistry, and physics.
Some applicants are accepted to optometry school after 3 years of college and complete their bachelors degree while attending optometry school.
Licensure, Certification, Registration
All states and SA as well require that optometrists be licensed.
Applicants for a license must have a Doctor of Optometry degree from an accredited optometry school and must pass both a
and clinical board examination.
Licenses are renewed every 1 to 3 years, with continuing education credits required for renewal in all states and SA.
International Optometric Association
It has own objectives, codes of ethics, and rules of practice.
license to practice
idea of what is required to be qualifies as an Optometrist.
The American Optometric Association:
The oldest International Optometric associations
In 1898, the first meeting of the AOA was held.
In 1903, change the term Refracting Optician to Optometrist .
The AOA Objective of the association
•To improve the quality, availability, and accessibility of eye/vision care.
•To assist members in conducting their practices successfully with the highest standards of patient care and efficiency.
•The Canadian Association of Optometrist
Optometry programs include courses in the basic health sciences (anatomy, physiology, pathology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and public health), optics, and the vision sciences, as well as laboratory and clinical training in diagnosing and treating eye disease.
Residency and Advanced Training.
Optometrists wishing to teach or conduct research may study for a masters or PhD degree in areas emphasizing the visual and ocular system.
clinical residency programs
are available for optometrists who wish to obtain advanced clinical competence, although residency training is not required to be licensed as an optometrist.
Areas for residency programs include the following:
• Primary eye care•
Cornea and contact lenses
• Geriatric optometry•
• Low vision rehabilitation•
Vision therapy and rehabilitation
• Ocular disease•
Refractive and ocular surgery
• Community health optometry
Education, Careers, Resources
American Optometric Association, Career Guidance Materials
243 North Lindbergh Blvd, Floor 1
St Louis, MO 63141-7881
Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry
6110 Executive Blvd, Suite 420
Rockville, MD 20852
National Board of Examiners in Optometry
200 S College Street, #1920
Charlotte, NC 28202
Accreditation Council on Optometric Education, American Optometric Association
243 North Lindbergh Blvd
St Louis, MO 63141-7881
(Health Care Careers Directory 2009-2010)
Need for Optometric Licensing
In USA and Western countries, the national state examination boards is required, (by ensuring that the Optometrist demonstrates professional expertise and knowledge in both
written and oral
examinations, and also has the necessary skills required to operate
modern Optometric instrumentation).
renew the license 1-2 year
keep up-to-date with information about new developments in Optometric techniques, materials, equipments and in diagnosis and treatment of ocular conditions.
Take home msg