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Jessica Woodman

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of COPPER

Have you ever wondered what your life would be like without copper?
Fact is, without this basic element
there would be no running water, no phones, no computers, no electricity and believe me the list goes on and on.
Your life would be primitive.
The process begins with mining.
There are two different mining methods:
- Open Pit Mining
- Underground Mining
Open Pit Mining
A widely used mining technique in which extracts copper ore slightly below the earth's surface by digging a massive hole with terraces.
Underground Mine
An underground mine is created when the copper ore is not near the earth's surface. This technique requires miners to dig a shaft down into the copper ore deposit.
In both mining methods the Copper ores are removed and transported to a processing and refining plant by trucks and trains.
What is an Ore?
According to "Collins Canadian English Dictionary", an ore is a rock containing a mineral which yields metal.
Copper Ores
Copper Oxide Ores include:
Copper Sulfide Ores Include:
The 3 largest Copper mines in the world are situated in:

-Chile (Escondida open pit mine and Chuquicamata open pit mine)
-Indonesia. (Grasberg open pit mine)
Processing and Refining
Flotation Process: A process for concentrating the metal-bearing minerals in a ore.
Leaching: A solvent is passed through a mixture to remove a substance.
Smelting: Extracting a metal from its ore.
Sulfide Ore Process
Oxide Ore Process
Leaching and Floatation
Sulfide Ore
Oxide Ore
Smelting and Extraction
The collected Copper solution from leaching will be pumped into an extraction plant where it will be purified.
The copper sulfide minerals that were collected and dried as concentrates, will be sent through a smelting operation. This operation includes heating the ore in a furnace so that the chemical bonds break with the impurities. Slag is the term for the impurities and matte is the solid copper that is produced.
Sulfide Ores:
-After smelting, the copper is poured into a mold (called anodes) with the help of a casting wheel. This process makes transportation of the copper possible.

-Then, the copper will be delivered to a plating house which will submerge the anodes in a dilute sulfuric acid and copper sulphate to re-plate the copper, increasing its purity level up to about 99.99%.
Oxide Ores:
-The copper solution is plated into pure copper sheets by a process called electrowinning.

-Electrowinning is a process where electrical currents are passed through a solution (called electrolyte) which contains dissolved metal ions including copper. This process causes the copper in the solution to adhere to the stainless steel sheets (cathodes) leaving impurities behind.

-Unfortunately, this process takes about 2 weeks. But once its done, the cathodes containing copper can be stripped.
Producing Products
What can Copper become?
-Architectural Applications
-Industrial Applications
-Uses of Copper in Electricity
-Practical Daily Application of Copper
-Application in Transportation
-Biological Applications
Copper can be made into rods, wires, cable, tubes, sheets, strips and plates.
During production of these shaped copper materials, other metals can be added to give copper additional properties.
These alloying elements add strength, durability, ductility, corrosion protection and other properties.
In fact, there are more than 800 copper alloys registered in the USA.
Copper Cable
Copper cathodes must be made into copper rods.
Copper Cathode to Rod
The process of copper rod manufacturing consists of the following main stages:

1. Melting of the metal.
2. Preparation of metal for casting in the holding furnace.
3. Casting of a copper rod.
4. Rolling of copper rod.
5. Cooling of copper rod.
6. Coating the copper rod with anti-corrosion wax layer.
7. Coiling of the copper rod into packaging.
8. Weighing, warehousing, and shipping of the finished product.
Copper Rod to Cable
The process of colored copper cable manufacturing consists of the following main stages:

1. The copper rod is uncoiled and fed through a machine that draws it out through a series of lubricated dies. This is called the drawing process which creates different diameter wires by stretching, lengthening and thinning it out.
2. Winding it onto a bobbin.
3. The bobbin is loaded into a stranding machine which will twist copper
wires into a cord. (An electrical/bare conductor)
4. The copper conductors are then insulated with PVC. (polyethylene)
5. As the conductor exits the insulating machine a precision laser gauges the diameter to make sure its uniform with the correct dimensions.
6. The conductor is then pulled through water, to cool.
7. The cables are coiled.
8. Submerged in water to carry out a voltage test to ensure no cables short circuit and provide any possibilities for electrocution.
9. Packaged, warehoused and shipped to stores or other manufacturers for further production of products.
Location of Markets for Copper Cable
One may buy coils of Copper cable at:

Home Depot
Note: Cable is available in different diameters, lengths and prices.
Environmental Concerns
Leaching and Flotation of Sulfide and Oxide Copper Ores
Water: Within this stage of production, a large amount of water and sulfuric acid liquid waste is created. However, it is directly re-used in the leaching process with minimal refinement.

Smelting and Extraction
Air: Produces sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and fugitive dust in furnaces. However, most of the sulfur dioxide is collected and re-used as sulfuric acid in leaching fields and the fugitive emissions are captured at furnace vent.
Water: If the temperatures are high enough, toxic water vapor may be created. However, it will stay in the furnace until it becomes a gas, in which will be captured by furnace vents.
Open Pit and Underground Mines
Air: Creates Fugitive Dust.
"Fugitive" dust is particulate matter (solid particles) suspended in the air by wind action and human activities. The dust is mainly composed of soil minerals and can be easily created with mining.
Controlled by applying crust-forming chemicals or water.
Water: Water flow is disturbed and exposed to ore.
Contaminating the water with ions,
hard water.
Controlled by redirecting water flow.
Crushing of Ore
Air: Creates Fugitive Dust, because of the impact that the rock must take. This pressure expels small rock minerals into air, known as fugitive dust.
Wet ore, will minimize fugitive emissions.

Air: Casting molds create fugitive emissions. The emissions are reduced by dust control and covered machinery so that the emissions can be captured and disposed of in a secure landfill.
Water/Land: Production of slimes (waste). This slime is collected and sent to treatment plants and discarded.
Production of air and water pollution during the refining process of raw material and how the toxic hazards are contained, cleaned and removed.
Environmental Impacts Regards to Production of
Copper Cable

Copper Cathode to Rod
Melting, Casting and Rolling

Within these three steps... are produced:
-toxic fumes

These pollutants can be manageable by fume collecting devices and removal/cleaning of sludge.
Copper Cathode to Rod

Within this step water waste is produced, and is sent to a plant for treatment.
Copper Rod to Cable
Drawing, Stranding and Winding

These three steps create no air or water pollution. All they require is energy (fuel or electricity) to operate the machinery.
Copper Rod to Cable

The process of insulating the conductor requires large amounts of energy to melt the PVC (insulator) onto the conductor.
Therefor, if the machinery uses fuel, carbon dioxide would be produced. (Combustion reaction) However, if electricity is used. The process would be environmental friendly.
Copper Rod to Cable
Cooling, Coiling and Testing

Cooling: Requires water, therefore waste water would be produced.
Coiling: Environmentally friendly, just requires machinery.
Testing: Requires water, production of waste water.

Copper Cathode to Rod
Coating and Coiling

Coating the rod with a wax and coiling it into a package is relatively environmentally friendly.
Producing Copper Cable is very environmentally friendly. The process just manipulates the physical properties of copper. Therefore, chemical reactions and pollutants are not present in the process.
In fact, scrap copper wire can be re-used and recycled for products that do not require high conductivity such as plumbing pipes.
Known worldwide, copper resources are estimated at nearly 5.8 trillion pounds of which only about 0.7 trillion pounds (12%) have been mined throughout history... and nearly all of that is still in circulation, because copper's recycling rate is higher than any other engineering metal.
Copper Ore is non-renewable, but it is in abundance
Did you Know?
For nearly 5,000 years, copper was the one and only metal known to man and today, it is one of our utmost used and reused "modern" metals.
Plus, Copper was first used by humans more than 10,000 years ago. A copper pendant was discovered in what is now northern Iraq and has been dated to about 8700 B.C. So next time you touch a penny, think about how the copper on this penny maybe as old as the pharaohs, because copper has an infinite recyclable life.
What do you think about Copper now?
Do you wonder what your life be like without Copper?
Thanks for watching, hope you enjoyed!
Thanks for watching, hope you enjoyed!
Copper Development Association Inc. (2013). Copper - From Beginning to End. Retrieved from <http://www.copper.org/education/copper-production/>.

DTPA Manufacturer. (2013). Uses Of Copper. Retrieved from <http://www.usesof.net/uses-of-copper.html>.

Katur-Invest. Copper Wire Rod Production. Retrieved from <http://www.katur.ru/en/about/Manufacturing/Copper_rod_manufacturing/>.

Lenntech B.V. (2013). Copper - Cu. Retrieved from <http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/cu.htm>.

Primary Metals. Copper Processing. Retrieved from <http://www.istc.illinois.edu/info/library_docs/manuals/primmetals/chapter5.htm>.

Taiwan Trade. Electric Wires & Cables Making Plant. Retrieved from <http://turnkey.taiwantrade.com.tw/en/Content.aspx?ID=23>.

Wikipedia. (2013). List of Countries by Copper Production. Retrieved from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_copper_production>.

Writer, S. (2013, July. 11). 3 Largest Copper Mines in the Worlds. Retrieved from

Oxide Ore
Sulfide Ore
Full transcript