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Church History

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Divea V

on 18 April 2012

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Transcript of Church History

Church History Before the Battle of Milvian Bridge, Constantine looked into the sun to see a cross of light. Because of this, he had all his soldiers adorn their shields wth the Chi-Rho. Thereafter, they were victorius. This caused Constantine's conversion to Christianity in 312 AD. Conversion Edict of Milan In 313 AD, Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan declaring a new policy of tolerance toward religious worship, notably Christianity. Christians could now worship in public places. All the property and relics taken by the Rmoans were also given back to the Christians. CONSTANTINE Rise of Islam THE GREAT SCHISM The Great Schism A period of divide in the Roman Catholic Church dated around 1054. It was a time when the authority of the pope was questioned in regard to his power over the patriarch in Constantinople. The power struggle caused the split. Michael Cerularius The patriarch at Constantinople who greatly siagreed with the argument that the Pope in Rome was a greater authority than the patriarch. Cerularius got into an argument with Cardinal Humbert who then excommunicated him and vice cersa. Cerularius was the one who claimed that because of their differences, the eastern and western churches could not be in union. Johann Tetzel To pay off debts to the Archbishop of Mainz, Tetzel sold indulgences to raise money for construction of St. Peter's Basilica. One of his famous quotes was "As soon as money in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory's fire springs." Indulgences A remission of temporal punishment due for sins which have already been forgiven. The indulgence is granted by the church after the sinner has confessed and received absolution. THE BEGINNING St. Peter Born Simon, Jesus gave him the name Peter ("stone"). Peter was a disciple of Jesus and leader of the Apostles. He is regarded as the first bishop of the Church at Rome and was later martyred in the city. Peter is also thought to be the keeper of the gates of heaven. Apostles Twelve chief disciples of Jesus Christ Pentecost This Christian festival marks the birth of the church and is celebrated on the 50th day of Easter. This event commemorates when ten days after the ascension, a miracle of the Holy Spirit gave the apostles the ability to speak in different language. Aferwards, Peter addressed the crowd about Jesus and 3,000 converts were baptized the same day. Also known as the Holy Ghost, the Holy Spirit is the third person of the Trinity. It is God as spiritually active in the world. Holy Spirit ST. BENEDICT St. Benedict Italian monk Benedict began living as a hermit to escape the sin, crime, and disarray of of society. Soon other men wanted guidance to live the same balanced life. Benedict built a monastery and wrote "Rule of Saint Benedict" which described monastic life. He is known as the father of Western monasticm. Monte Cassino A group of men who drew themselves around Benedict wanted guidance in ordering their lives. The balanced life in which they sought combined prayer, work, meditation, and service. These men helped form what would be Monte Cassino, Benedict's famous monastery between Naples and Rome. This monastery was a complete economic unit, supplying itself of all needs. EARLY CHURCH MONASTICISM REFORMATION Antony of Egypt was one one the earliest hermits around the year 270. Jesus' words spoke to Antony, telling him to give up all his possessions and follow God. Antony learned virtue and discipline, soon teacher younger people this, too. These younger people built huts around him and learned from his stories and teachings. Antony, now of old age, left on his final hermitage into the desert to die in peace. St. Antony ANTONY OF EGYPT Monasticism A religious way of life in which a person renounces all worldly pursuits and dedicates their life to contemplation, prayer, and work. ST. BRIGID OF KILDARE St. Brigid Irish servant Brigid grew up kind and generous. When faced with proposal for marriage, Brigid refused and vowed to live a life serving God. Brigid, along with seven other women, formed a monastic community that drew other women. Brigid eventually founded many other monastic communities throughout Ireland. Kildare Brigid founded the first double monastery. Kildare had a monastery for men seperate from the women's. Kildare was led by a double line of abbesses and abbot-bishops until convents were put under jurisdiction of men. Kildare also had a school which offered liberal arts and religious studies. RETURN TO THE ROMAN EMPIRE PROBLEMS ARISE SAUL OF TARSUS Saul Saul of Tarsus was a pharisee, a citizen of Rome, and a persecuter of early Christians. After the death of Stephen, Saul went on a rampage killing many of the followers of Christ. Saul's Conversion On his journey to Damascus to persecute the Christians, Saul fell to the ground when a bright light shone from heaven. The Lord asked Saul why he was persecuting Him. Saul was then blinded and told to head to Damascus for his task. After three days, a man Ananias placed his hands upon Saul and Saul regained his sight. From this moment on, Saul acknowledged Jesus as the Messiah and went by him Roman name, Paul. Paul spent the rest of his life spreading Jesus' message, especially to the Gentiles. FALL OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE Istanbul With the last Byzantine emperor killed, the Turks attacked Constantinople and destroyed the city for three days. The Turks captured Constantinople in 1453 and renamed it Istanbul. Ivan the Great Ivan the Great was the leader of the Russian people and with the fall of the Byzantine Empire, became the successor of the fallen emperor. Moscow became viewed as the "third Rome" and Ivan ruled the Church. He appointed patriarchs in the Russian church. During this time, the Christian church was divided. There was the Roman Catholic church in the West and the Orthodox church in Russia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Asia Minor. Charlemagne Pepin's son, Charles, was successful in organizing part of Western europe into a Frankish kingdom. Charles became known as Charlemagne, meaning "Charles the Great" in French. Charlemgane conquered the Saxons and forced baptism as a way to strengthen the kingdom. Charlemagne moved constantly in order to keep order. He promised protection of the papal lands and also began ordering around the pope. Charlemagne was able to achieve his vision of a strong empire during his lifetime. HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR Pope Leo III Charlemagne managed to bring together the land of the Western Roman Empire by the year 800. During a Mass at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne. Charlemagne became known as "Emperor of the Romans." This event implied that God acted through the Pope. As new emperor of the Roman Empire, the church was breaking away from the East. Martin Luther Augustinian priest and monk Martin Luther, was a scholar who studied church fathers and scripture. He and the other monks in his German monastery adhered to a strict religious life. EXPANSION OF THE CHURCH Ninety-five Theses Luther wrote the theses regarding sin and forgiveness. He also wrote about the pope's role in granting indulgences. Luther wrote the 95 Theses to Archbishop Albert of Mainz to discuss the role of indulgences in granting salvation. He did not believe indulgences guaranteed salvation, but was contrarty to Catholic theology. CALL FOR REFORM Protestant Reformation Beginning in 1517 with Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses, the Protestant Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of the Protestant branch of Christianity. John Calvin Predestination French reformer Calvin created Calvinism, another version of Luther's Protestantism. Calvin rejected Mass as well as transubstantiation, but did believe in the supreme authority of Scripture. Calvin did not advocate any fancy rituals, ornmamentation or statues, but preferred simple church worship. To outline his understanding of Christian faith and practice, Calvin wrote "The Institutes of the Christian Religion." Calvinist belief that everything has been foreordained, meaning established unalterably, by a God who has already elected certain people for salvation and destined others with reprobation. CALVINISM In Switzerland, Swiss theologian Zwingly started his own religious revolution. Zwingli also established a theocracy in the Swiss city of Zurich. He believed the sacraments were merely oaths and argued against transubstantiation. Ulrich Zwingli King Henry VIII King Henry VII, also known as "Defender of the Faith" condemned Luther and his theology. During the time of the Reformation however, he faced the issue of who would succeed him on the throne, because he had no heir. He needed a son to prevent battle over the throne and to do this, he wished to annul his marriage to Queen Catherine of Aragon. Pope Clement VII did not grant this annulment, which angered King Henry VIII. Church of England Clement VII's refusal to grant an annulment drove King Henry VIII to declare himself the head of the state sponsored Church of England, also called the Anglican Church. Henry rejected the pope's authority which severed ties between England and the Roman Catholic Church. English clergyman were required to be loyal to the king, along with anyone in the public life who had to acknowledge the king's supremacy because of Parliament's "Act of Supremacy" in 1543. ISLAM A merchant named Muhammad, born in 570, founded the Islamic religion in 622 AD. Muhammad was considered to be a prophet, relaying the words of God he recieved from the Angel Gabriel. His followers were known as Muslims and the religion as Islam, meaning "submission to God." Islam holds the central beliefs in one God, Allah, who should be honored through the spreading of the religion. Huhammad wrote the truths of God revealed to him in what is known today as the Koran. CHRISTIANS IN THE WORLD TODAY Attila the Hun Fierce barbarian leader Attila led his tribe in invading Italy. The unfavorable climate changes in Asia caused the Huns to wander across Europe, destroying towns in their path. Though he was stopped briefly by the Romans and Goths, he trudged on towards Italy. Italy was weak and barely had any defense, but Pope Leo the Great was able to make Attila turn back, saving Rome in the process. Fall of Rome In the year 410, the barbarian Goths looted and burned the city of Rome. Many pagans claimed that the barbarians were able to cause the fall because the Christian God could not protect the city like pagan gods had. Christians began to doubt their God, too. The fall of Rome also signified the crumbling of the Roman Empire in the West. "CITY OF GOD" Pope Urban II Not long after the split betwwen the Greek and Latin churches, the Byzantines asked Pope Urban II for help against the invading Turkish Muslims. Urban called for the First Crusade in 1096, to free their territory and take Jerusalem from the Saracen Muslims. This initiated a serires of Crusades, almost all of which were not successful. First Crusade Second Crusade Third Crusade Fourth Crusade 1096 1147 1189 1202 REAL POPE Pope Urban VI Italian Urban VI was elected as a compromise candidate afte Gregory in 1378. He was hot tempered and the French cardinals did not like and in turn, did not consider him a real pope. As a result, they elected a French cardinal as pope. There were now two popes whom Christians had to make a choice out of. Great Papal Schism Christians were forced to pledge their loyalty to one of the two popes: the Italian or the Frenchman. This situation continued for three decades and became known as the Great Papal Schism. When a council was called to try and resolve the problem, they elected another pope, bringing the count up to three popes. CRUSADES SPANISH INQUISITION Ferdinand & Isabella Under monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella, Spain was united due to their efforts in stamping out all opposition. Under these two Spanish monarchs began the cruel Spanish Inquisition. The targets of the effort were all Jews and Muslims, including converts. Even though the Pope did not approve, he was powerless. Papal Inquisition Beginning in 1232 by Pope Gregory IX, the Papal Inquisition's purpose was first and foremost to find heretics and persuade them to give up their heresy. The public was invited to report any suspected heretics when church officials held hearings in different towns. The heretics were often forced to give up their beliefs to avoid harsh punishment. The inquisition did use trial by jury where the guilty could prove their innocence, but nevertheless, it was a fearful time. INQUISITION IN ROME CHURCH IN AUSTRALIA Pastoring The first Christians, 750 British and Irish convincts, arrived in Sydney in 1788. Australia, as newly discovered land was the perfect place for the undesired citizens. The convicts were the focus of missionary efforts at first, then nonconvict immigrants, and lastly native Australians. In the early years in Australia, convicts did not recieve the sacraments because Catholicism was forbidden. The first Mass in Australia was celebrated in 1803 by an Irish convict priest. In the next 7 years, three convict priests worked among the prisoners, but when they left Australia free men, it was not until a decade later that another Catholic priest could minister. In 1820, the first permanent Catholic chaplain arrived in Australia. Growth of the Church 50 years after the first Christians arrived in Australia, the majority of the population was now free immigrants. The immigration spurred Catholics and Protestants to establish schools which began a growing network of educational institutions, clinics, orphanges, and parishes. These establishments were necessary due to the population increase as a result of the gold rush in the 1850s. After the Gold Rush After the excitement from Gold Rush died down, diggers were the labor force of Australia. There was no longer a need for convict labor which was good, because the British no longer sent over convicts to Australia. By the early 1900s, most of Australia's population were Catholic. Beginning Southeast After arriving in America in the 1500s on the quest for gold, Spanish explorers and missionaries traveled across the southeast. They were able to convert a few Indians, but overall found little success early on. In 1565, the settlement St. Augustine was built as the first permanent Catholic settlement. By the 1600s, over 25,000 natives were Christian. Missionaries made efforts to learn the native languages and write books for the Indians, though the English would later destroy their accomplishments. Southwest In 1540, Spanish explorers traveled through Mexico in the search for gold to no avail. They did see Indians living in pueblos. When a pueblo of Indians prevented the colonists from succeeding in their efforts, the Spaniards punished them brutally which hurt the missionary effort. In 1609 Santa Fe was founded. By 1630, there was nearly 35,000 Christians Indians in the southwest. When Spanish traders raided Indian territory, the Indians killed one-third of them and burned down religious establishments. They reverted back to their old ways and the missionary efforts had to be restarted. California In 1769, Spanish friars traveled to modern-day California for missionary work. The leader, Serra, taught and baptized natives along the jounrey and established multiple missions along the coast. In total, 21 missions were built in California by the Spaniards. Indians living in the missions learned the Catholic religion and European practices. Friars were either wise or cruel to the natives. Inidans often worked the land around the missions to support everyone living in the establishment. SPANISH MISSIONS Council of Trent Held from 1545 to 1563, the Council of Trent was responsible for the Catholic Reformation. The council speeled out and restored tradition faith and practice such as the teaching that faith is based in the Bible and church Tradition. The council also imposed new discipline on the church. Neverthless, the Council of Trent failed in uniting Luther, Calvin, and Henry VIII's followers. The era during the council was also during the revival of the Inquisition which posed more problems. However, the Council of Trent was relatively successful.
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