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The Evolution and Applicability of Freudian Concepts
Transcript of The Evolution and Applicability of Freudian Concepts
What do you know about Freud?
Controversies & Freud
Influences on Freud
Literature and Arts
The Case of Anna O.
What was learned from Anna O.?
Freud's Ideas about Hysteria
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Benign, or benevolent
All of the structures develop in large part through identifications with parents, larger family, community, religion, and the greater culture.
Such identifications can be harsh and cruel or tender and loving.
It is the part of the mind that induces feelings of pride and satisfaction or shame and guilt.
These states have an experience of “I am being scrutinized by a parent-like other who disapproves, loathes, or is disgusted by me.”
Shame = interpersonal quality (“Others will think me bad”)
Guilt=Mental representation of the self pronouncing the negative judgment (“I am bad”)
In health, these three internal components of
2) support, and
3) prohibitions or criticisms usually maintain a cooperative, reality-based balance with each other.
Contains an internal sense of morality. An empathic and compassionate identification with the experience of the other is a critical developmental milestone, coined “identification with the comforter.” (in juxtaposition to identification with the aggressor)
Psychopathology, on the other hand, offers many examples of disproportion and extreme discord among the three parts.
Can range from severe (antisocial / borderline) to more moderate (anxiety disorders)
A characteristic feature of the punitive superego is that it is readily and regularly externalized and experienced as coming from outside of the self.
Superego has been in development since early infancy.
Mothers of infants at high risk were observed making statements regarding their babies such as “You’re so bad,” “Can’t you leave me alone”
Many factors: How much time elapses between an infant expressing his or her need and the caregiver’s response? What is the quality of the response, the look on the caregiver’s face, and the tone of the caregiver’s voice?
The child’s primitive defenses and magical thinking, tend to make the superego of early childhood excessively harsh.
Severe Punishment (washing out mouth with soap): experiences become internalized. Through experience, through identification with the aggressor, a part of the child’s super-ego becomes one with the severe super-ego of the parent.
The loving parent (on the other hand) realizes that the child is already frightened and guilt-ridden and offers the child comfort and reassurance, thus contributing to the modification of the super-ego’s punitive tendencies.
Before you can get authentic feelings, you need to get rid of judgments about that.
The therapist must put into words what the patient is experiencing…acquaint her with the shaming, punitive aspect of her mind and will continue to do so nonjudgmentally, patiently, and tactfully.
Over time, the client identifies with the gentler, more loving superego of the therapist.