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What was Reconstruction?

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Alyssa Fabia

on 17 December 2013

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Transcript of What was Reconstruction?

Reconstruction 1865-1877
Reconstruction Political Cartoons!
Economic Problems
Political Strife:
Moderate Republicans vs. Radical Republicans
Democrats vs. Republicans
Congress (Radical Republicans) vs. Andrew Johnson
Discrimination towards Blacks:
Black Codes
KKK (Ku Klux Klan) and Jim Crow Laws
Economic Problems
Without land or money, many free slaves had to still work under white masters
Sharecropping became common,
caused damage
Name for Northerners that usually came with "carpet bags"
South gave this name to outsiders that they felt were exploiting them
Lack of industry and railroads

"Slavery by Another Name"
Reconstruction was the time period prior to the

Civil War
With the south destroyed, the rebuilding of the south was in order
The slaves were free!
However, Reconstruction proved to be a futile effort

What was Reconstruction?
The Amendments
13th Amendment
Passed in 1864
Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude
15th Amendment
Ratified 1870
Prohibits federal or state governments from stopping someone from voting based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”
14th Amendment
Adopted 1868
Gave citizenship to all born in the United States
The Freedmen's Bureau
Established in March 3, 1865
Created to educate and aid poor blacks and whites
Est. 200,00 blacks was taught how to read by the bureau
Later disintegrated with lessening support
Former Union general
Oliver O. Howard
lead the Bureau
Political Strife
Moderate Republicans:
Agreed with Lincoln’s and Johnson’s plans of integrating the South back into the union as fast as possible on the terms of Congress rather than President
Abraham Lincoln was forgiving of the south and proposed
The Ten Percent Plan
A state could be reentered into the Union if 10% of it's voters pledge and take an oath to the Union, and also acknowledge the emancipation of the slaves
Johnson’s plan was like Lincoln’s but also called for:
Some Confederate leaders not being able to vote
State ratification of the 13th Amendment
The removal of Confederate debt

Radical Republicans:

Charles Sumner:
led radicals in the Senate
Thaddeus Stevens
: most powerful radical in the House, leading figure in Joint Committee on Reconstruction
Wanted to keep Confederate leaders out of power.
Wanted to make the Republican party powerful in South.
Wade-Davis Bill
It required 50% of the states’ voters to take oaths of allegiance
Demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation than the 10% Plan.
Declared seceded states as "conquered provinces"
Used federal gov’t to help African-Americans achieve political equality through suffrage (right to vote)
Military Reconstruction Act
: 1867—Placed US troops in the South to run and monitor Reconstruction.

Moderate Republicans vs. Radical Republicans

Andrew Johnson
Johnson repeatedly vetoed Republican-passed bills:
Bill extending the life of the Freedman’s Bureau
He also vetoed the
Civil Rights Bill
Conferred on blacks the privilege of American citizenship and struck at the Black Codes
"swing 'round the circle": speeches he made accusing Radicals in Congress planning anti-black riots/murder

Congress (Rad Republicans)
As Republicans gained control of Congress, they passed the bills into laws with a 2/3 vote and thus override Johnson’s veto.
Radical Republicans were angry with President Johnson, and they decided to try to get rid of him.
In 1867, Congress passed the
Tenure of Office Act
, which provided that the president had to secure the consent of the Senate before removing his appointees

Johnson vs. Congress
Democrats vs. Republicans
Many of the Southern states re-joined the Union and with that the Democrats returned to office
During the civil war the
enjoyed a legislation that favored the North and had a strong influence over the government
With the return of the Democrats, the republicans realized that slaves would be considered as a whole vote rather than 3/5ths, the Democrats would quickly grow in political power
Republicans were afraid that the South would then impose their discriminatory laws thus proving the Civil War to be useless
Blacks Unable to Vote
Blacks Unable to Make a Living
Share Cropping:
system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land.
Tenant Farming
Jim Crow Laws
Laws that enforced racial segregation in the South
South Carolina:
No persons
, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers,
shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter."
Ku Klux Klan
Founded in 1866 by Confederate veterans in the South
Targeted black and white Republicans that aimed for equal right for African Americans
Discouraged African Americans from voting using violence
Group of
white supremacists
Resisted Republican Reconstruction
In response, Congress passed the
Force Acts of 1870 and 1871:
criminal codes which protected blacks’ right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws. The laws also allowed the federal government to intervene when states did not act
Black Codes
laws aimed at keeping the Black population in submission
forbade Blacks from serving on a jury
barred Blacks from renting or leasing land, and Blacks could be punished for
by being subjected to working on a chain gang.
Poll taxes
Literacy tests
Grandfather Clause
End of Reconstruction!
Compromise of 1877
Hayes winning the election of 1876 made the North happy but the South mad. To please the South
all Federal troops were removed from the South
Reconstruction was ultimately a failure
When Abraham Lincoln was assassinated Andrew Johnson had to take over and there was a lot of opposition towards him
The economics of the South was still mainly agricultural because of sharecropping and tenant farming
Set backs for African American rights because of black codes, Jim Crow Laws, and the Ku Klux Klan


"The future looks dark, and we predict, that we are entering upon the greatest political contest that has ever agitated the people of the country-a contest, in which, we of the South must be for the most part spectators; not indifferent spectators, for it is about us that the political battle is fought. The issue is fairly joined."

- Loyal Georgian (black newspaper), 3 March 1866
The Citizenship Clause:
Broad definition of citizenship,
overruling the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford
Privileges or Immunities Clause:
Prohibits states from interfering only with privileges and immunities possessed by virtue of national citizenship
Former Confederates could not hold federal/state office
The federal debt was guaranteed while the Confederate one was repudiated

Scalawags and Carpetbaggers
was also a term to describe Republican political appointees who came to the south
Many were business men who leased or purchased plantations and became wealthy landowners
was a term used to describe southern whites who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party
Full transcript