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Cultural Standards of Advertising

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by

Lauren Hudson

on 17 December 2013

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Transcript of Cultural Standards of Advertising

Negative publicity (most damaging)
Withhold service or cut off access to space
Imposed pre-screening
Revoked or limited access to trading privileges and recognition
Referral to the Office of Fair Trading for legal consequences
Cultural Standards of Advertising
PopChips
Lauren Hudson Irelyn Akers, Alexa Catania, Xu Gong, Lei Lei
Parody by a Chinese netizen
Antonio Federici Ice Cream
Britain's Ethical Codes
Committee of Advertising Practice (CAP)
Self-regulatory body
Creates, amends and enforces the
Code of Non-broadcast Advertising, Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing
Ensures that marketing communications are

legal, decent, honest and truthful
and customer confidence is maintained”
Works alongside the law, supplements the law and often provides a non-litigious route to solving disputes
Consequences
What Antonio Federici Says
The word "conception" speaks to the development of the ice cream
"We considered the use of a nun pregnant through immaculate conception was likely to be seen as a distortion and mockery of the beliefs of Roman Catholics."
What the ASA Says
"We concluded that to use such an image in a lighthearted way to advertise ice cream was likely to cause serious offense to readers, particularly those who practiced the Roman Catholic faith."
The use of religious imagery speaks to the strong feelings toward their product
They wished to "comment on and question, using satire and gentle humor, the relevance and hypocrisy of religion and the attitudes of the church to social issues".
"Only a tiny proportion of those who have seen the ads have made complaints. They seem to be upholding the views of a bigoted minority over the majority."
The ad campaign celebrates the "implied forbidden Italian temptations" of the ice cream.

2010
"immaculately conceived"
2009
"submit to temptation"
2010
"we believe in salivation"
Industry Response
Suggestion:

The rational and effective order would be for the principle of origin to take precedence

“Social Responsibility code”: should not incite any form of discrimination, including that based upon race, national origin, religion, gender, age, disability or sexual orientation.
"Despotic Manner, You Have to Pay Respect to It"
The Lugou Bridge, aka the Marc Polo Bridge
July 7th, 1937
Japanese imperial troops launched a full-scale invasion of China, which signifies the beginning of WWII in Asia.
Ashton Kutcher received backlash from the Indian American community after portraying an Indian man named Raj in an ad campaign for Popchips.
CEO of Popchips Keith Belling's Apology


"We received a lot of feedback about the dating campaign parody we launched today and appreciate everyone who took the time to share their point of view. Our team worked hard to create a
light-hearted parody
featuring a variety of characters that was meant to provide a few laughs.
We did not intend to offend anyone
. I take full responsibility and apologize to anyone we offended."

National Trade Group
Relevance to Public Relations
Global issue
Understanding business practices for international clients
Values
Understand the industry
Overlapping standards
So What?
PR works with advertising
Managing the reputation of the company
Successful global business
"Despotic Manner, You Have to Take it Down!"

National Trade Group
Evaluation
1. No country has a specialized category for a cross-culture standard

2. The description of principle is vague and sketchy in some countries

3. Almost all of the countries clearly outlined key aspects of culture to be concerned except U.S and Japan.

4. Religion, Race and gender are three parts that are highlighted
Questions and Goals
Three case studies analyzing
Cultural and ethical standards
Harms involved
Weigh interests
Is there is a solution to the issues of cultural advertising?
If so, what is the solution and how can such a remedy be implemented, without infringing upon creativity, but still ensuring that the content is culturally appropriate?
Received so much backlash it had to be taken down
Indian American comedian Hasan Minaj stated, “What was the point of ‘Raj’ character? Oh yeah, to sell Popchips by blatantly laughing at Indian people.”
International Trade Group
Suggestion:
The rational and effective order would be for the principle of origin to take precedence


“Social Responsibility code”: should not incite any form of discrimination, including that based upon race, national origin, religion, gender, age, disability or sexual orientation.


Hofstede's Culture Dimensions Theory---pioneering research of cross-culture group and organization

Industry Expert
1. Gives an approximate understanding of
other cultures
2. There are other factors on which culture can be analyzed
3. National scores should never be interpreted as deterministic for individuals
http://geert-hofstede.com/countries.html
What About Advertisers...
American Freedom Defense Initiative

Dedicated to freedom of speech, freedom of conscience and individual rights under law.

General Evaluation
Lack of general-accepted framework
Cross-cultural standard for advertising are not received enough attention
There is an evident gap among countries on the efforts of guidelines
There is room for advertising to offend


American Ethical Codes
American Ethical Codes
Federal Trade Commission (FTC Codes)

were created

“to safeguard the freedom of expression of those engaged in marketing communications"

According to Article 4, under
Social Responsibility
,
“marketing communications should respect human dignity and should not incite or condone any form of discrimination, including that based upon race, national origin, religion, gender, age, disability or sexual orientation.”
American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA)
Upholds advertising laws and regulations
Aims to broaden the application of high ethical standards
Will not knowingly create advertising that contains:
False or misleading statements or exaggerations (visual or verbal)
Testimonials that do not reflect the opinion of the individual(s) involved
Misleading price claims
Unfair comparisons against a competitor
Statements, suggestions or pictures offensive to public decency or minority segments of the population
Toyota
Current Industry Response
Industry Trade Groups
International Organization
Industry Expert
Other
China's Regulation on Control of Advertisements
Article 8 An advertisement that contains any of the following contents may
not
be published, broadcast, installed or posted
(1) that violates the laws and regulations of the State;

(2) that impairs the national dignity of the State;
(3) that involves designs of the national flag, national emblem or national anthem or the music of the national anthem of the People's Republic of China;
(4) that is reactionary, obscene, superstitions or absurd;
(5) that is fraudulent;
(6) that depreciates products of the same kind.
"In Kekexili, you have to fight with two rivals - physical limits and desperate poachers. Without a Land Cruiser, it is hard to imagine how to overcome either of them."
Cultural Standards of Advertising
"Culture is a like dropping an Alka-seltzer into a glass - you don't see it, but somehow it does something." - Hans Magnus Enzensberger
Britain’s ad council banned an Italian ice cream manufacturers ad depicting a heavily pregnant nun with the tag line “immaculately conceived” on the basis that it would offend Roman Catholics.
Solutions
Creating a working solution to the issues of cultural advertising.
Not something that will happen quickly
Not perfect, but worth the time
Recommendation
The solution is
not to create one code
Not realistic
All countries agreeing is a slim chance
Developed vs. under developed countries
Codes are already overlooked
Recommendations
Two pronged approached for recommendations:
Counselor preparation
Counselor practice

Cross Cultural Marketing and Communications Association (CCMCA)
Cross-cultural marketing
Similarities rather than differences
Promote diversity and cultural understanding within the industry
Cultural Expert or Cultural Agency
Aware of cultural standards
Research topic
Multiple Offices
Developed countries and framework.
Developed vs underdeveloped
Networking of agencies
Preparation
Practice
After updating, enforcement
Cultural foundation/society
For now, a way of reporting
This will take time, but diminish offensive material
Digital age will continue
Thank You

Toyota motor Corp sincerely apologizes for the unpleasant feelings that may have caused to readers by the two ads of Land Cruiser and Prado SUV. The two ads are solely commercial and contain no other intention.

Toyota has stopped running the two ads. Toyota will continue to provide its Chinese consumers with the most satisfactory goods and services, and hopes for support from Chinese consumers.

TOYOTA‘s Letter of Apology
Parody by a Chinese netizen
"Cultural advertising is when we use our native culture as a framework of our general understanding of a topic or issue, but then if and when we interact with different cultures, our framework no longer applies to solving the issue because of the cultural differences. When we are removed from what we know, we sometimes flounder. Issues arise from cultural advertising because of blurred lines of appropriate values in different cultures" -Kwintessential
The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA)
Independently endorses and manages the Code
Guarantees that the self-regulatory system benefits the public
Investigates and oversees complaints
Conducts research
Can be independently reviewed
Antonio Federici Ice Cream
Full transcript