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Renaissance & Reformation

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Elyse Cannon

on 31 March 2015

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Transcript of Renaissance & Reformation

Baldassare Castiglione
Niccolo Machiavelli
Lorenzo de Medici
Leondardo da Vinci
Michelangelo Buonarroti
Johannes Gutenberg
Albrecht Durer
Jan van Eyck
Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther
Unit 6 Vocabulary
John Calvin
Henry VIII
Elizabeth I
Counter Reformation
Ignatius of Loyola
Council of Trent
Charles Borromeo
Francis of Sales
Teresa of Avila
Renaissance & Reformation
means "rebirth"
rebirth of art, science, individuality, secularism
Jan van Eyck’s Arnolfini Portrait, 1434, oil on oak panel of 3 vertical boards
Raphael’s The School of Athens, 1509-1510, fresco in Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Sandro Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus, 1486, tempera on canvas, Florence
Michelangelo’s David, 1504, marble, Florence
Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man, 1487, pen and ink with wash over metalpoint on paper

Leonardo da Vinci's The babe in the womb, 1511, pen and ink on paper
Michelangelo, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, 1508-1512, fresco, Vatican City with detail of The Creation of Adam
Italian Renaissance
Focused on worldly subjects rather than religious
Studied classics of Greece & Rome
Emphasized individual accomplishments
Emphasis on education in humanities (grammar, poetry, history, rhetoric)
Worldly focus (not religious)
Answer questions about the world through observation of the world around you, not the Church
Challenges the Church
Patrons (wealthy, church) hire artists
Realistic art through perspective
Influence of Greek/Roman culture
People to Know
Medici family
Wealthy family of Florence, Italy
Famous patrons of the arts
Wrote "The Courtier" describing the perfect Renaissance person
"Athletic, but no overactive, good at games, but not a gambler...
Niccolo Machiavelli
Wrote "The Prince" saying that rulers must do what is necessary to maintain rule, even if it is immoral - better to be hated than loved
Leonardo da Vinci
painter & architect
School of Athens
St. Peter's Basilica
painter, writer, engineer, architect, mathematician, musicians, philosopher, scientist
The Last Supper, The Mona Lisa
Ideas for flying machines, canals, machine guns
Sculptor, painter
David, Sistine Chapel, Pieta
1. What did the artist paint/sculpt/draw?
2. What are some key parts of the artwork?
3. What do you think these things represent?
4. Who is the artist?
5. When was the artwork created?
6. How do you think this artwork fits into the Renaissance as a whole?
Warm Up
1. Explain the why the need for a common medium of exchange led to the rise of
a. barter system b. money economy
c. guild system d. burgesses

2. By the end of the Hundred Years' War,
a. a series of victories had given English a new sense of national unity
b. the use of feudal soldiers had made national armies obsolete
c. the French monarchy had lost much of its power and prestige
d. France had driven the English out of most of its territory

3. The Crusades contributed to all of the following EXCEPT:
a. the growth of Mediterranean trading cities
b. improvement in the level of European technology & weaponry
c. greater contact between Europe, Byzantine, and Muslim civilizations
d. an increase in the power of feudal lords

4. Parliament becomes the lawmaking body in
a. England b. France c. Holy Roman Empire d. Spain
Venice = sea trade
Milan = agriculture, silk, weapons
Florence = bankers
Northern Renaissance
Network of trade routes dominated by Hanseatic League
Ideas spread from Italy through trade and scholars
German Johannes Gutenberge developed printing press
More ppl can afford books
More ppl have books
Ppl learn to read
Education increases
Renaissance spreads
Very similar to Italian Renaissance
Popular for using symbolism in paintings
Important People
Dutch Priest
Believed in a simple life without materialistic goods
Championed Christian Humanism
Discontent with Catholic church
Wrote The Praise of Folly
Sir Thomas More
Wrote Utopia
Criticizes English govt
Envisions a perfect society
William Shakespeare
Greatest English playwright
Spread Renaissance ideas to masses through plays
Huge change from religious morality from Middle Ages
Italian born writer
Focused on the role of women in society
Wrote poetry, a biography of Charles V, and works that guided women on proper morality
Championed equality and education for women
Christine de Pizan
German oil painter, printmaker, engraver, woodcutter
Albrecht Durer
Melancholia I, 1514, engraving
Young Hare, 1502, watercolor
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter that focused on landscapes and domestic life
Middle Ages or Renaissance?
A lot of the themes from the Renaissance are interconnected. Create a mind map that encompasses the themes and shows the connections.
Warm Up
1. What does Renaissance mean?
2. Where did the Renaissance begin?
3. What were some factors that allowed for the Renaissance to occur?
4. Name the artist:
a. School of Athens d. Vitruvian Man
b. Sistine Chapel e. David
c. Mona Lisa f. St. Peter's Basilica
5. What does it take to be a Renaissance man/lady?
6. What is the difference between a Pieta and Madonna?
7. Who are Machiavelli and Castiglione?
Protestant Reformation

Before you can reform, you have to have some problems
Church spends too much (i.e. extravagant art projects)
Corruption, abuse, immorality
People lose respect for & question the church
Church sold INDULGENCES to people to pay for art projects
People loyal to nation rather than church
Early Reformers
John Wycliffe
Church should give up all material possessions
Jan Hus
Preached against immorality & worldliness of Catholic Church
Martin Luther
Martin Luther... KING
Martin Luther
Protestant Reformation begins with Luther's
95 Theses
nailed to church door in Wittenberg, Germany
written in academic Latin
Key Points:
1. God's grace cannot be won by good works.
2. Faith alone is needed to get to Heaven.
3. Jesus Christ is the head of the church, NOT the pope!
4. People can interpet the Bible without a priest.
5. Bible is translated into German.
Reactions to Luther
Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V summons him to meet with Diet in Worms
Edict of Worms declares him an outlaw
His ideas continue to spread and by 1530, Lutheranism is official
Charles V suppresses Lutherans in Germany, but princes protest... hence,
Spread of Protestantism
Ulrich Zwingli
pardon that reduces time in purgatory
Est. church in Switzerland with theocracy
Martin Luther accused him of tampering with word of God
Violence started when Swiss Protestants were attacked by Catholics, Zwingli dies
John Calvin
Preached predestination (God already knows who will be saved)
Rooted in Geneva, Switzerland
Church is mandatory
No feast, dancing, singing, jewelry
John Knox
Protestant in Scotland
Lays ground for Presbyterianism
Re-baptized adults (a crime at the time)
Another problem
Henry VIII
As young king, earns title of "Defender of the Faith"
His wife only has 1 child, a girl named Mary...
but, he wants a male heir
Pope says divorce is not an option
Henry names himself head of the Church of England
and his 6 wives
Catherine of Aragon (Mary), divorced
Anne Boleyn (Elizabeth), beheaded
Jane Seymour (Edward VI), died
Ann of Cleves (no kids), divorced
Catherine Howard (no kids), beheaded
Katherine Parr (no kids), survived
1547 - Edward VI takes throne at age 9
1552 - Edward VI dies, Mary takes throne
Mary (devout Catholic) kills Protestants "Bloody Mary"
Mary dies, Elizabeth I comes to power
Golden Age of England &
Church of England was strong
Warm Up
1. How did the Renaissance spread to Northern Europe?
2. When was the Renaissance?
3. Who was the main playwright of the Renaissance?
4. What was the first book printed on the printing press?
5. Language spoken by common people is called:
6. What is humanism?
7. What were the following people known for?
a. Machiavelli e. Erasmus
b. da Vinci f. Sir Thomas More
c. Medici g. Castiglione
d. Michelangelo h. Gutenberg
response to the Protestant Reformation
Goal: bring people back to the Catholic Church
Early Reformers
Preached fiery sermons against the Catholic Church
Called on the church to use gold/silver to buy bread for the hungry and poor
Excommunicated for spreading ideas that the pope was dangerous & executed in 1498

Society of Jesus, focused on Catholic spirituality & service
Founded by
Ignatius of Loyola
who ran it like a military
Emphasized discipline & obedience to the church above all
Council of Trent
Began by Pope Paul III in 1545
Met on and off until 1563
Purpose was to examine criticisms made by Protestants and to clarify
Catholic teachings and practices
Addressed corruption of the clergy
Addressed training of priests & financial abuse
Sale of indulgences was abolished
Rejected Protestants emphasis on self discipline & individual faith
Significance: No compromise between Protestants and Catholics
Women & the Church
Teresa of Avila
Followed her own regimen of fasting, prayer, & sleep
Church eventually gave her the power help reform
Church court established to counter the Reformation
Tried those accused of being witches, Protestants, or those who broke church law
Spanish Monarchy established the harsher Spanish Inquisition
Used to impose religious uniformity, prosecute Jews, Muslims, and Protestants
Effects of the Reformations
2. Jews & Muslims viewed as heretics, forced to live in ghettos
3. Increase in witch hunts
4. Increase in nationalism
5.Separation of Church & State
Warm Up
1. What were some of the problems in the Catholic church that led to the Protestant Reformation?
2. Who started the Protestant Reformation?
3. How did Lutherans become Protestants?
4. What happened at the Diet of Worms?
5. What were the 95 Theses and where were they posted?
6. Who was Henry VIII and what did he do?
7. People who followed the Church of England were called...?
8. Which wives of Henry VIII had children?
Warm Up
1. Name the person:
a. Mona Lisa f. The Prince
b. Justification through faith g. Get rid of all luxuries
c. School of Athens h. Predestination
d. Wealthy Florence family i. Utopia
e. Sistine Chapel
2. People of the English Church were called _______________.
3. Where did Renaissance artists get their ideas?
4. What is fresco painting?
5. What were complaints about the Catholic church?
6. Describe some themes of the period.
7. Who sold indulgences?
8. What happened as a result of the Edict of Worms?
9. Scotish Calvinists were called ____________.
10. Language spoken by the common people is called _______.
Henry the Navigator
Treaty of Tordesillas
Columbian Exchange
Balance of trade
Joint stock companies
Triangular trade
Middle Passage
African Diaspora
Absolute monarch
Divine right
El Greco
Spanish Armada
St Bartholomew Day Massacre
Edict of Nantes
Glorious Revolution
Constitutional Monarchy
1. Many factions of Christianity
Italian Economy
Middle Ages - nuns (women devoted to the church) took care of the poor, orphaned and sick
1. What does it mean to Protest?
2. What does it mean to reform?
3. What is the Protestant Reformation?
4. Who is Martin Luther and why is he important?
5. What did the Protestant Reformation do to the Catholic Church?
6. Who is Henry VIII?
7. What country was he from?
8. What did he desire for his kingdom?
9. How many wives did he have?
10. What was the name of his church?
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