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Intro to Special Education for Dumbies :)

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Kate McCusker

on 20 December 2013

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Transcript of Intro to Special Education for Dumbies :)

Intro to Special Education for Dumbies :)
Categories of Special Education
There are 13 categories of special education:
Emotional Disability
Hearing Impaired
Intellectual Disability
Multiple Disability
Orthopedic Impairment
Other health problems
Specific Learning Disability
Speech and Language Disability
Traumatic Brain Injury
Visual Impairment
Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
The Breakdown...Over a long period of time, one more more of the following characteristics adversely affects a child's academic performance:
inability to learn that cannot be explained by learning or intellectual disability
inability to build and maintain relationships with peers and adults
inappropriate behaviors and feelings under normal circumstances
Unhappiness or depression
physical symptoms or fears associated with with personal or school problems.

Determining Existence
May not be determined to be SLD if lack of achievement is a result of...
visual/hearing impairments
mental retardation
emotional disturbance
cultural factors
environmental or economic disadvantage
lack of appropriate instruction
limited English proficiency
Specific Learning Disability
The Breakdown... a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language; written or spoken. Affected areas are in the ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do math.
if a child does not achieve at age appropriate state-approved grade level standards
does not make sufficient progress towards those standards
can affect...
listening comprehension
written expression
basic reading skills
reading fluency and comprehension
math calculation and problem solving
Comprehensive Eval
What You Will Need..
RTI Data Screenings
Medical History
Family Info
Formative Testing
Discipline Records
Requires Parental Imput
Provide Classroom Observation in the Area of Difficulty
Can Manifest Itself As.....
Anxiety disorder
separation anxiety
Mood Disorder
Oppositional Defiance Disorder
Conduct Disorder

acting out
non-compliant behaviors
Does Your Child Have an EBD?
Academic characteristics:
below grade level work in reading, writing, and/or math
low rating on self-control and social skills measures
higher rate of retention
expressive or receptive language disorder
Determining Presence
What It Looks Like...
SLB cover a very broad range of deficits. Therefore the accommodations and modifications vary from child to child... thus IEP!!!
Use data to create an action plan
Hone in on the student's area of weakness and use Best Practices to work towards success
Also hone in on student's strength and help them use those strength to progress with their weaker areas.
Rating scales, inventories and observations are often used
Do they exhibit 1 or more of the 5 characteristics?
Do they exhibit anti-social behavior outside of school?
What It Looks Like...
Early Childhood...
Determining Presence
Rating scales, inventories, and observations are often used.
Do they exhibit one or more of the 5 characteristics?
Do they exhibit anti-social behavior outside of school?
Classroom centered intervention
Mastery Learning
Good behavior game
Family-school partnership intervention
Multi-component Intervention
Student-directed learning strategies
Social stories
What It Looks Like Cont..
Elementary and Middle School
What It Looks Like...again
Secondary and Transition:
Conflict resolution
Students learn:
effective communication
anger management
taking another's perspective
Conflicts occur because of resources, needs, or goals
Teaches problem solving and successful decision making.
Service Learning
Instructional activities that integrate teaching activities w/ community service
Designed to teach civil responsibility
Reinforce lesson in the classroom in the context of real life
Improves Communities
Communication Disorders
A difficulty with speech, language, or both.
There are four types of communication disorders:

- difficulty producing sounds and fluency
- difficulty understanding or formulating ideas
- difficulty receiving or understanding verbal information

- difficulty forming ideas and information
Speech Disorder
(most common type of speech disorder)
= motor speech disorder; affects child's plan to produce speech
Voice Disorder
= medical cond. that affects production of speech, pitch, durations, intensity
Fluency Disorder
= disruption of flow
Language Disorders
Can be either receptive, expressive or both
- students are unable to discriminate between different speech sounds
- students have problems using speech structure
- students have trouble with word order
- difficulty using words (singularly or together), multiple meaning words etc.
- difficulty with unrelated talk and talking for unusually long period of time.
Expressive Disorders
Can manifest itself as:
lower than normal vocabulary
difficulty with complex sentences
low vocabulary skills
trouble with verb tenses
trouble remembering words
Receptive Language Disorders

Difficulty receiving or understanding info said to them
Does not seem to listen
Lack of interest
Inability to understand complicated sentences
Inability to follow verbal instructions
Trouble parroting words or phrases
Skills below grade level
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder
Determining the Cause
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity that is classified as more than typical.
identifiable in neuromuscular mechanism of person
Can originate in the
Nervous system
Formation of speech mechanism
May also include
Hereditary malformations
Disorder must adversely impact students' academic performance to receive services. They receive services under "other health concerns" since IDEA has no specific category for ADHD.
It usually manifests itself before 7. It has to have a duration of at least 6 months, appear in multiple settings, and is not attributed to another disability.
not identifiable
Present when cause of the impairment is unknown
An articulation disorder with no physical cause is regarded as functional
Congenial Acquired
Portions may have been present at birth, others show up later
Approximately 3% to 8% of school aged children have ADHD.
Approximately 4.2% of preschoolers are diagnosed with ADHD.
More boys are diagnosed than girls.
Latinos are less likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis.
Organic Disorder
3 Types
Functional Disorder
Predominantly Inattentive Type
Students with predominantly inattentive type have trouble paying attention, are forgetful, easily distracted, and exhibit selective attention.
Students may appear lethargic apathetic or hypoactive.
Are often overlooked.
Determining the Presence
Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
Students have trouble sitting still, talk excessively, have difficulty playing quietly.
Few adolescents or adults exhibit the HI type.


Preferral: teacher models speech sounds, expands language, and asks open ended questions to student

Referral: child cont to have dif, then team will continue with more intervention to start

Nondiscriminatory eval procedure
Combined Type
Students with combined type exhibit characteristics of both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive type
Speech and language testing
Articulation assessment
Voice assessment
Fluency assessment
Language assessment
Expressive and receptive
Anecdotal records
Curriculum based assessment
Direct observation
Determination: teams says yes… IEP team develops appropriate edu options for this child
Nondiscriminatory Eval Procedure
ADHD is NOT caused by:
lack of self-control
poor parenting
too much television or video games
too much sugar
living in a face paced culture
ADHD can be caused by:
focus on dopamine
Brain differences
Other biological causes
Determining the Presence
In the Classroom...
Effective Strategies
Presence is determined by a pediatrician and a psychiatrist or a psychologist
Teacher may be asked to complete a behavior rating scale
Conner's Rating Scale - R
Once presence is determined, there are assessments to help determine the nature and extent of services.
Not every student with ADHD qualifies for IDEA services
They may receive services through a 504 plan.
Accommodations and Services
Language intervention
: meaningful in social context
Child to child learning
Parents are valuable partners
Focus contrast
: highlight dif bt child and adult… repeat what they said
Event casts:
Say what they are doing during context
Open questions:
what do we do next?
Expanding what they say
keeping structure but adding to. It
so more child to child interaction
Graphic organizers
Story map
Web design
Hand write
Augmented input:
communications on boards
The role of the 504 or IEP team is to develop educational plans that may or may not be used in conjunction with medication.

Arrange classroom in a consistent manner
The child should not alas be seated with peers
Seated in close proximity to the teacher
Do not sit close to highly distracting areas. I.e. the open door, windows
Clearly post daily and weekly schedules.
Organize classroom activities and routines that facilitate smooth transitions.
Minimize the classroom clutter.

Not all students need accommodations… Some just need extended time; more processing

If they do need accommodations….
What is being expressed
How does student best receive info
How does student best express info
What do you need them to get out of this?
Assess knowledge of material, not materials they are using
Common Test Accommodations
Frequent breaks
Extended time/multiple testing sessions
reduced distraction testing environment
small group
familiar test administrator
Accommodations Cont...

Complex vs simple sent structure

Written directions vs auditory/ visual

Structure test with true/ false, multiple choice, answer in gestures.. Instead of longer writing… get creative!

Make it familiar
Accommodations Cont...
Pecs system
Pic exchange comm system
Helps identify what they need/ want.. Uses at snack show, respond, say, try ten trials.. Testing level of understanding
Fm radio transponder
Voice synthesizer
Tablets with push to speak
Social express is a great app.. Similar to blues clues
Word processors
Guess who is a great game to help with older kids!
Headbands as well! Modify to ability
Multiple Disabilities
No single definition covers all the conditions associated with multiple disabilities.

Sometimes called severe disabilities.

Students who need intensive support to address their intellectual, adaptive, motor, sensory, or communication needs.
Developmental disability that affects children prior to age 3 in three areas:
Verbal and nonverbal comm
Social interaction
Academic performance
Diagnostic and stat manual of mental disorders:
Pervasive developmental disorder(Ppd)
Autistic disorder, Rhett's disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Aspergers disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified
often use the term autism spectrum disorders when referring to some of all of these disorders.

Students Tend to Have Deficiencies in:
Intellectual functioning
Adaptive skills
Motor development
Sensory functioning
Communication skills
Prevalence of Autism
In 2006, 223,395 students
Fewer students with aspergers
Males outnumber females 4-1
Increased prevalence over last decade
Diff theories for why:
Greater public awareness
More refined diagnostic procedures
Sometimes the causes are unknown

In about 3/4 of cases of students with intellectual impairments there is a biological cause.

Many are caused by genetics
Fragile X
Smith-Magenis Syndrome
Does your child have multiple disabilities?
Characteristics of Autism
Repetitive behaviors
Obsessions, tics, and perseverations
Problem behavior
Self injury behavior
Need for environmental predictability
Sensory and movement disorders
Intellectual functioning
Savant syndrome
Nondiscriminatory evaluation process
physician/medical professionals
Apgar test: below 4 indicates possibility of severe disability.
Determining the Cause
Historical perspectives on causes
Refrigerator moms( no love for child… cold)
Moms being responsible for autism.. Parallel to nazi concentration camp experience .. Dr. B.
Biomedical causes
Abnormalities in brain dev
Genetic factors
Determining the Presence
Usually in early childhood
Often uses some of the same tests given to students with intellectual disabilities and multiple disabilities
Criteria may include
Speech and lang
Acad achievement
Cognitive functioning
Medical physical status
Autism diagnostic interview-revised
Functional assessment- an ecological assessment
Describe the nature of the behaviors
Gather info from interested parties
Determine why the student engages in problem behavior
Hypothesize relationship bw behavior and events before, during, and after the behavior
Incorporate functional assessment info into the IEP
Help student develop alternative behaviors

Determining and Nature of Specially Designed Instruction and Service
Supplementary support from teachers and paraprofessionals
Peer tutoring
Advances in technology
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices
Early Childhood:
Planning for Other Edu. Needs...
Provide students Instructional supports that enable them to develop and maintain friendships
Promoting friendships
Include students in all areas
Use peer buddy programs
Use person-centered planning models that involve peers
Ensure peers learn about the goals of inclusion
Students IEPs should address…
Trustworthiness and loyalty
Conflict resolution
General friendship skills
Positive intersection style
Taking the perspective of others
Goals to integrate students with multiple disabilities into the general education classroom
CSS model
Reflect and act
Plan and predict
Act and observe
Report and reflect
Early Childhood...
Elementary/Middle School:
Early intervention and preschool programs use diff approaches
Applied behavior analytic tech, discrete trial training
Incidental teaching in natural env
Communications, sensory processing, motor planning, and shared affect with caregivers and peers
Social storied address the "hidden curriculum"
Elementary and Middle School...
School wide positive behavior supports
A system-level and evidence-based method for improving valued social and learning outcomes for all students
Proactive, problem-solving, and data-based approach to improving academic, social, and communication outcomes
Also seeks to arrange school env and change school systems to prevent students from engaging in problem behaviors
Includes three components: universal support, group support, and ind support
Partial participation
children with multiple disabilities should not be denied access to the general education curriculum solely based on their support needs
Students should participate, at least partially, in age appropriate activities.
Making Accommodations and Assessments...
High School and Transition Students:

Students with autism may perform better on standardized assessments when provided more frequent positive reinforcement
They may also perform better when assessments are administered by a familiar person
Presence of the examiner min the students' anxiety and stress associated with testing
Student directed learning strategies
Teach students with and without disabilities to modify and regulate their own learning
Picture prompts or antecedent cue regulation strategies
Problem solving strategies
Verbally state the question/problem
Task sequencing
"What-Where" strategy
Interactive strategy
Self-Monitoring Strategies
Hearing Loss
Physical Disabilities... A.K.A. Orthopedic Impairment
Students with hearing loss are usually labeled as deaf or hard of hearing.

Conductive loss - a problem in the outer and middle ear

Sensorineural loss - a problem with the inner ear or along the nerve pathway to the brain

IDEA describes this disability as a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
It includes:
congenial anomaly
impairments caused by disease
poliomyelitis, bone TB
and other causes
cerebral palsy
fractures or burns that cause contractures
Cerebral Palsy
occurs in approximately 1 in 2,000 children
Prenatal causes
Exposure to viruses, bacteria, and other toxins before or right after birth
Post Natal causes
infections in infancy and childhood can cause hearing loss
Post Lingual causes
physical damage done to the ear
Lack of muscle control that affects a student's ability to move and to maintain balance and posture
Neurological disorders that happen before or during infancy
Lifetime condition... they are not "sick"
Sub categories...
Spastic= tightness in muscle groups
Dyskinetic= impairments in muscle tone
Athetoid= abrupt, involuntary movements
Ataxic= unsteadiness, poor balance
Mixed= combo when one does not stand out
prenatal (most common)
gestational infection, brain malformation
stroke, lack of oxygen, infection during birth
Audiologist diagnoses hearing loss:
Infants and young children
auditory brain stem response
otoacoustic emissions test
Older children
behavioral audiological evaluation
Hearing aids make sound louder but do not restore normal hearing.

Cochlear implants provide sound information by directly stimulating the functioning auditory nerve fibers in the cochlea
Assessments of language, speech, speech reading, singing, academic achievement and socialization are essential.
The educational interpreter is often the student's bridge to the hearing world around them
Spina Bifida
Communication modes:
Sound amplification systems
Loop systems
FM waves to hearing aids
Closed captioned technology
Computers/internet access
American Sign Language
"open spine" or malformation of the spinal cord before birth
3 Common Forms:
Spina bifida occulta
(mildest, most common)
(more serious, can be repaired by surgury, less likely to experience mobility impairments)
(leads to physical and cognitive impairments)
occurs within first month of gestation environmental and genetic factors interact to cause spinal malformations
environmental factors:
acne medication (Accutane)
maternal diabetes
Interventions for young children include
Language-rich environment
Shared reading (ASL interpreter)
Learning about the real world and having authentic experiences are particularly important to make connections between what they know and what they read. Learning about deafness and the Deaf community should be included in the curriculum for all students
Visual Impairments
Legal blindness is a measurement used primarily for eligibility for government or public assistance programs
Impairment in vision that adversely effects the student's educational performance
Have limited ability to learn incidentally from the environment and therefore must be directly exposed
occurs at birth or before visual memories can be made.
can effect the earliest access to information and experiences.
Other Health Impairments
acquire vision loss after having unimpaired vision
can be caused from an advent or an event
IDEA: having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that:
due to chronic or acute health problems (asthma, ADD, diabetes, epilepsy,
Ophthalmologists determine the presence of a visual disorder and optometrists and low vision specialists determine if it can be corrected
Functional low vision assessment
Learning media assessments
Educators determine the effects of visual impairment on the ability of the student to access the general curriculum
Students need to maximize all other senses during educational experiences gain everything they need to.
Instruction must focus on the skills acquired incidentally by sighted students and those skills that are specific to students with visual impairments.
More Accommodations:
Early childhood
TVIs teach parents to think like someone who can't see
teach hands on, real life skills such as changing clothes and making snacks
emphasis on teaching compensatory skills
raised maps
handling specimens
social skills
orientation and mobility
Secondary and Transition Student
focus on transition from school to adulthood
from living with parents to living on own
orientation and mobility skills in the community
Traumatic Brain Injury
The IDEA definition of TBI includes acquired injuries to the brain caused by and external force but does not include brain injuries that are congenital, degenerative, or induced at birth.
Closed head injuries and open head injuries are the two types of brain injuries.
What Does it Look Like?
Students often experience changes:
Four main causes:
automobile accidents
events of being struck by or against
Severity of the injury and the age of onset are two important factors that determine the severity of the disability and the ability to improve.
Students with TBI can differ greatly based on the part of the brain injured and the severity of the injury.
Some helpful strategies:
educators partner with medical professionals
simple technologies to help with memory impairment
teach at a slower rate
collaborative learning
cooperative learning groups
focus on problem-solving and decision-making skills
Intellectual Disability
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