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Transcript of Paradiso (Boyle)
Agamemnon MERCURY THE AMBITIOUS The planet represents those who did good out of a desire for fame,
but who, being ambitious, were deficient in the virtue of justice. VENUS THE LOVERS The souls in this Heaven glow and dance like the flame of a torch, at varying speeds, some faster than the lightning. As they go, they sing hosannas in voices so beautiful that anyone hearing them will long to hear them for ever after. ROMEO FOLQUET DE MARSEILLES
CUNIZZA DE ROMANO
RAHAB THE SUN THE WISE Each of the spirits here is an ardent sun in their own right, glowing with the light of love. They dance and whirl about, and will circle around visitors such as Dante to inform them of what lies in this Heaven. They can also see the thoughts of visitors. Different groups of spirits may speak to visitors as they pass through this Heaven THOMAS AQUINAS MARS THE WARRIORS OF THE FAITH Home of the warriors of the Faith, who gave their lives for God, thereby displaying the virtue of fortitude.
The millions of sparks of light that are the souls of these warriors form a Greek cross on the planet Mars, and Dante compares this cross to the Milky Way JOSHUA
WILLIAM OF ORANGE AND RENOUARD
DUKE GODFREY AND ROBERT GUISCARD JUPITER THE JUST RULERS The spirits in the sphere of Jupiter spell out--one letter at a time, like cheerleaders or a marching band at a sporting event--the Latin words diligite iustitiam qui iudicatis terram ("cherish justice, you who judge the earth"), a fitting reminder to kings and other secular rulers.
The final letter formed, the m of terram, then changes to a new shape: a number of lights rise upward to form the neck and head of an eagle while the remaining spirits first weave the figure of a lily around the lines of the m and finally settle into the shape of the eagle's body. DAVID
WILLIAM II OF SICILY
RIPHEUS SATURN THE CONTEMPLATIVES The sphere of Saturn is that of the contemplatives, who embody temperance.
Beatrice, who represents theology, becomes increasingly lovely here, indicating the contemplative's closer insight into the truth of God. THE FIXED STARS FAITH, HOPE AND LOVE
CHURCH TRIUMPHANT My eyes returned through all the seven spheres
and saw this globe in such a way that I
smiled at its scrawny image: I approve
that judgment as the best, which holds this earth
to be the least; and he whose thoughts are set
elsewhere, can truly be called virtuous. Say, who assures you that those works were real?
came the reply. The very thing that needs
proof no thing else attests these works to you.
If without miracles the world
was turned to Christianity, that is
so great a miracle that, all the rest
are not its hundredth part: for you were poor
and hungry when you found the field and sowed
the good plant once a vine and now a thorn. There is no child of the Church Militant
who has more hope than he has, as is written
within the Sun whose rays reach all our ranks:
thus it is granted him to come from Egypt
into Jerusalem that he have vision
of it, before his term of warring ends. Thus I began again: My charityresults from all those things whose bite can bringthe heart to turn to God; the world's existence
and mine, the death that He sustained that Imight live, and that which is the hope of allbelievers, as it is my hope, together
with living knowledge I have spoken of
these drew me from the sea of twisted love
and set me on the shore of the right love.
The leaves enleaving all the garden of
the Everlasting Gardener, I love
according to the good He gave to them. PRIMUM MOBILE The Primum Mobile, the largest and swiftest sphere in Dante's cosmology, is the physical origin of life, motion, and time in the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic universe.
This heaven, the supreme physical heaven in the universe, is enclosed only by the Empyrean, the mind of God. Enkindled in the Empyrean are the love which turns the Primum Mobile and the virtue (or creative power) that the Primum Mobile pours down onto the lower spheres.
Therefore the Primum Mobile--or "first moving" sphere--determines the natural operation of the universe, in which the earth is motionless at the center of the nine concentric, revolving heavens. As the physical source of motion, the Primum Mobile serves as the measure for the other spheres and is the basis for time. EMPYREAN From the Primum Mobile, Dante ascends to a region beyond physical existence, the Empyrean, which is the abode of God. Beatrice, representing theology, is here transformed to be more beautiful than ever before, and Dante becomes enveloped in light, rendering him fit to see God. white rose ephemera trinitarian circles the end.