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3--Genetics & Heredity

Genetics--Mendel's Work
by

Lisa OConnor

on 20 October 2016

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Transcript of 3--Genetics & Heredity

Chapter 3
Gregor Mendel--The Father of Genetics
a.Before meiosis—every chromosome in parent cell is copied
(LIKE DNA REPLICATION)

b.Meiosis I—chromosome pairs line up in the center of the cell
( LIKE METAPHASE)

i. Pairs move to OPPOSITE ENDS OF CELL
(LIKE ANAPHASE)

ii.2 cells form, each with half number of chromosomes (2 chromatids)
(LIKE CYTOKINESIS)
Section 4: DNA connection
I.Chromosomes—Inheritance—Walter Sutton
a.Found on Grasshoppers

the offspring has 24 chromosomes in 12 pairs, one chromosome in each pair came from each parent.

b.Found chromosome theory of inheritance
Genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes
Section 3: Cells & Inheritance
I.Probability—number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur

a.Each event is independent of another
Section 2: Probability & Heredity
I.Mendel—Father of Genetics--priest
A.Heredity--passing of physical characteristics

B. PEA PLANTS---looked at traits--height

C.Fertilization--pistil-female
--stamen-male

1. P GENERATION (PARENT)--- TALL X SHORT (PUREBRED)

TT X tt (each letter is an allele)
( 2 letters make up a gene)
(gene controls the trait)

2. F1 GENERATION (First Offspring)----TALL X TALL X TALL X TALL (HYBRIDS)

Tt, Tt, Tt, Tt (one allele is given from each parent)

3. F2 GENERATION (Second Offspring) ---- TALL X TALL x TALL X SHORT (HYBRID/PUREBRED)

TT, Tt, Tt, tt
EXAMPLES:
1.Gene—AA--DOMINANT,
Aa--DOMINANT, aa--RECESSIVE

2.Allele—A, a
A--DOMINANT, a--RECESSIVE

3.One allele from each parent makes the gene for the offspring
D.DOMINANT--- (T) IF THERE ALWAYS SHOWS THIS TRAIT

TT---- T--stands for tall, so this pea plant will be tall

E.RECESSIVE--- (t) HIDES IF WITH A DOMINANT ALLELE---IF 2 together, THEN this TRAIT IS SHOWN

tt-- t--stands for short, so this pea plant will be short

F. Tt--IF THERE IS one T and one t THEN T will DOMINATE because it is the DOMINANT ALLELE

Tt---T is tall, so this plant will be tall
---because there is a t there, it will be hidden, but this means that the pea plant is a CARRIER

G. CARRIER--IF THE ORGANISM DOES NOT SHOW THE TRAIT PHYSICALLY BUT CARRIES THE RECESSIVE ALLELE--Their offspring could have the recessive trait
Section 1: Genetics--Mendel's Work
II.PUNNETT SQUARES—shows all possible combinations of alleles that can result genetic cross

A.Helps you predict probabilities

B.PHENOTYPE—PHYSICAL appearance or visible traits (TALL) (SHORT)

C.GENOTYPE—GENETIC makeup or allele combinations (Tt,TT) (tt)
H. HOMOZYGOUS— 2 identical alleles (SAME)
TT, tt, CC, cc, BB, bb, GG, gg

I. HETEROZYGOUS—2 different alleles (DIFFERENT)
Tt, Hh, Cc, Bb, Gg

f.CODOMINANCE—alleles that are neither dominant nor recessive, BOTH alleles are expressed in offspring
II.Meiosis—process by where number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells

—sperm and egg –2 diploid cells form 4 haploid cells
c.Meiosis II—chromosomes with 2 chromatids move to the center of the cell
(METAPHASE)

i.Centromeres split and chromatids separate, single chromosomes move to opposite ends of cell
(ANAPHASE)

ii.Four sex cells each with half the number of chromosomes that parent cell had
(CYTOKINESIS) --- 4 SEX CELLS (HAPLOID--Half # of chromosomes as parent cell at beginning)
I.Genetic Code
a.Genes—control production of proteins in cells.
i.Proteins determine—size, shape, color and other traits in an organism

ii.Order of nitrogen bases along gene form a genetic code—specifies protein produced

iii.3 DNA bases—codes for an amino acid
1.Order of 3 base codes order of amino acids form a protein
II.Protein Synthesis—cell uses info on gene to produce specific protein

a.Takes place on ribosomes

b.“messenger” carries genetic code from DNA to cytoplasm to get to ribosome—RNA

c.RNA has only one strand, contains uracil instead of thymine, different sugar molecule than DNA
d.Messenger RNA—copies coded message from DNA and carries it to ribosomes

e.Transfer RNA—carries amino acids to ribosome and adds to protein

f.Translating Code
i.mRNA production
ii.mRNA attaches to ribosome
iii.tRNA attaches to mRNA
iv.Protein production continues
III.Mutations (latin for change)

a.Any change in a gene or chromosome

b.Produce incorrect protein during protein synthesis resulting organism trait or pheonotype might be changed

c.Harmful—reduces chance of survival/reproduction

d.Helpful—improve chance of survival/reproduction

e.Examples—videos
Genetics---The study of Heredity
F--stands for Filial---Latin word for daughter (filia), son (filius)
2 ALLELES----GENE----CHROMOSOMES----DNA
Cool facts:
# of chromosomes: 22 autosomal + X + X/Y

# of Base Pairs: 3 BILLION DNA BASE PAIRS

# of GENES: About 20,000-25,000

We are all very similar

Only about 2 BASE PAIRS in 1,000 different

Human Cell's DNA--3meters long--stretched out--6m long

Watson and Crick--Discovered DNA
Full transcript