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South-East Asia

Unit 10 pg. 714

Jacob Hill

on 3 May 2010

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Transcript of South-East Asia

Southeast Asia By: Jacob Hill Singapore Art, music, and theater reflect the cultures of the various groups. Cultural events include Chinese operas, Indian dancing, and Malay dramas. Singapore has no official religion. The country's Constitution guarantees freedom of religion. The main religions practiced are Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Taoism, and Hinduism. Most of the Chinese in Singapore practice Buddhism or Taoism, and most Malays are Muslims. Hinduism ranks as the main religion among the Indians of Singapore, and Christianity is the dominant faith among the Europeans Singapore is a republic. A unicameral (one-house) Parliament makes the country's laws. A prime minister leads a Cabinet, which carries out the operations of the government. The Parliament has 84 elected members, up to 9 nominated members chosen by a select committee of the Parliament, and up to 3 appointed members called nonconstituency members (NCMP's). The NCMP's are not associated with a specific constituency (political division). The members of Parliament serve five-year terms.

Restaurants in Singapore offer a variety of Chinese, Indian, and Malay dishes. Western foods are also available, including American-style fast foods. The larger hotels and restaurants also serve a variety of international foods, including Mexican, Thai, and Vietnamese.
Beginning in 2003, all children who were citizens living in Singapore were required to enter primary school at age six. Students attend six years of primary school and four or five years of secondary school. In addition to English, children also learn one other official language, usually the native language of their family Singapore's ethnic groups create a variety of clothing styles within the country. Most people wear Western-style clothing, but many Indians and Malays prefer their traditional dress.
Performances by the Singapore Symphony Orchestra are also popular. The annual Singapore Arts Festival brings international dancers, musicians, and artists to Singapore Singapore Dollar Thailand Most of Thailand's people belong to the Thai ethnic group. The ancestors of the Thai migrated from southern China over a period of several centuries beginning more than 1,000 years ago. At various times, other peoples also came to the area as migrants, war prisoners, or refugees. These peoples included Mons, Khmers, Indians, Vietnamese, and Malays. About 95 percent of the Thai people are Buddhists. Most Thai follow the Theravada (Way of the Elders) tradition, a form of Buddhism that emphasizes the virtues of monastic life. Thailand is a constitutional monarchy, a form of government in which the constitution limits the power of the king or queen. In 2007, a constitution was approved that provides for a monarch, a prime minister, and a legislature called the National Assembly. The Assembly consists of a House of Representatives, with members elected to four-year terms, and a Senate, with members either elected or appointed to six-year terms. Thai people eat rice with almost every meal. Favorite foods to accompany the rice include hot, spicy stews called curries; salads of meat, fish, and vegetables; stir-fry dishes; and broiled or fried fish with sauces. Noodles are also popular, especially for lunches.
Thai law requires children to attend school from age 6 to 14. The government provides free public elementary and secondary education, but some students attend private schools. Vietnam According to the Vietnamese Constitution, which was adopted in 1980 and extensively revised in 1992, Vietnam is a socialist nation. It is governed by a single political partythe Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV). The party is the leading force in the state and society. Political power in Vietnam is based on the principle of democratic centralism. Under this principle, authority and power originate at the highest levels of the CPV and flow downward through a rigid political structure. The national dish of Vietnam is a noodle soup called pho. This dish consists of long rice noodles and fresh vegetables in a broth with meat or seafood. Many Vietnamese also eat boiled rice with vegetables, tofu (soybean curd), seafood, chicken, pork, or duck. A fish sauce called nuoc mam is used as a seasoning in many dishes. People in central Vietnam often eat beans, corn, cassava, sweet potatoes, or other starchy foods instead of rice. Most Vietnamese practice a combination of the Three Teachingsthat is, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism. The country also has a small number of Christians and Muslims. In the south, a religion known as Cao Dai and the Hoa Hao Buddhist sect, both of which originated in Vietnam, have numerous followers. Some people, especially in villages, worship the spirits of animals, plants, and other parts of nature. Nearly all Vietnamese 15 years of age or older can read and write. Children ages 6 through 10 are required to attend school. Schools of higher education in Vietnam include universities, agricultural colleges, technical institutes, and private business academies. The Vietnamese, especially children, enjoy swimming in the country's many lakes and rivers, and in the sea. Vietnamese children also engage in lively games of soccer. Many people play chess or tennis. Competitions involving judo and the martial arts of tae kwon do and kung fu are also popular. The Vietnamese typically wear lightweight clothing. Rural women wear loose-fitting dark pants and blouses that are often embroidered in brilliant colors. Conical hats called non la shield their faces from the sun. In cities, many girls and women wear the traditional ao dai, a long tunic worn with loose-fitting pants. However, a growing number of urban women now wear dresses and skirts. Rural and working-class men typically wear simple shirts and trousers. City men generally wear clothing similar to that worn by North Americans and Europeans. Vietnam Dong Cambodia Indonesia The people of Vietnam have a unique and fascinating culture that has been shaped by thousands of years of history. Their culture has been influenced by many other civilizations: the ancient peoples that once inhabited the land, the Chinese, the French, and most recently, the Americans and Russians. From all these outside influences, and centuries of war, oppression, and hardship, they have formed, and maintained their culture. The numerous ethnic groups of Thailand traditionally have produced a wide array of cotton and silk textiles. Each ethnic group wove textiles in distinctive patterns for clothing, domestic, and ceremonial purposes, thus transforming textiles into markers of identity. Developed during the Ayutthaya period between 1350 - 1767, "Muay Thai" is a style of boxing unique to Thailand in which combatants use elbows, knees, bare feet, and gloved fists to batter each other into submission...
Culture Religion Government Food Schools Fashion Entertainment Currency Culture Religion Government Food Schools Fashion Entertainment Currency Thailand Baht Culture Religion Government Food Schools Fashion Entertainment Currency The Indonesian government is based on a set of beliefs known as Pancasila. Pancasila consists of five principles: (1) belief in one God, (2) humanitarianism, (3) the unity of Indonesia, (4) democracy based on deliberation and consensus among representatives, and (5) social justice for all people. Culture Religion Government Food Schools Fashion Entertainment Currency The traditional clothing of Indonesian men and women is a colorful skirt called a sarong or a kain. A sarong is a long strip of cloth wrapped around the body. A kain is similar, but with the ends sewn together. Men wear a shirt with trousers, or a sarong. Women usually wear a long-sleeved blouse and a sarong or kain. The main food of Indonesians is rice, boiled or fried in various ways and served with a great variety of other foods. Indonesians eat their rice with meat, fish or a fish sauce, or vegetables; or they simply flavor it with hot spices. Indonesian cooks often simmer food in coconut milk and oil, and sometimes serve it wrapped in banana or coconut leaves. On Madura, the people hold bull races and bullfights. A martial art called pencak silat is popular throughout Indonesia. Practitioners fight not only with their hands and feet but also with sticks and knives. Many Indonesians enjoy European and American sports, especially badminton and soccer. Indonesians also like to bicycle, swim, and play tennis and volleyball.
Indonesia Rupiah More than 85 percent of the Indonesian people are Muslims, and about 10 percent are Christians. Many of Indonesia's Muslims follow Islam less strictly than other Muslims do. For example, many Indonesians combine ancestor and nature worship with Islam or Christianity. Most of Indonesia's adult population can read and write. The government provides primary and intermediate schooling for a small fee. The government also helps support private schools. Children are required by law to go to school for nine years, beginning by age 7. Thai culture is greatly influenced by traditional Buddhist beliefs regarding ancestral and natural spirits, which have been incorporated into Buddhist cosmology. Most Thai people own spirit houses, miniature wooden houses in which they believe household spirits live. They present offerings of food and drink to these spirits to keep them happy. If these spirits aren't happy, it is believed that they will inhabit the larger household of the Thai, and cause chaos. These spirit houses can be found in public places and in the streets of Thailand, where the public make offerings.[ Culture The culture of Cambodia has had a rich and varied history dating back many centuries, and has been heavily influenced by India and China.[1] Throughout Cambodia's long history, a major source of inspiration was from religion. Throughout nearly two millennium, Cambodians developed a unique Khmer belief from the syncreticism of indigenous animistic beliefs and the Indian religions of Buddhism and Hinduism. Indian culture and civilization, including its language and arts reached mainland Southeast Asia around the 1st century A.D. Religion Buddhism has existed in Cambodia since at least the 5th century, with some sources placing its origin as early as the 3rd century.Theravada Buddhism has been the Cambodian state religion since the 13th century, and is currently estimated to be the faith of 95% of the population.The history of Buddhism in Cambodia spans nearly two thousand years, across a number of successive kingdoms and empires. Buddhism entered Cambodia through two different streams. The earliest forms of Buddhism, along with Hindu influences, entered the Funan kingdom with Hindu merchant
Government Cambodia is a monarchy with a king as head of state. But the king has only ceremonial powers. A prime minister heads the government. Cambodia's legislature consists of a National Assembly and a Senate. The voters elect the members of the Assembly. Members of the Senate are chosen by local councilors, National Assembly members, and the king Food The staple food for Cambodians is rice. Almost every meal includes a bowl of rice, although noodles are also popular. A wide range of curries, soups and stir fries are served with rice. Many rice varieties are available in Cambodia, including aromatic rice and glutinous or sticky rice. The latter is more commonly found in desserts with fruits like durian.

Schools Traditional education in Cambodia was handled by the local wat, and the bonzes were the teachers. The students were almost entirely young boys, and the education was limited to memorizing Buddhist chants in Pali. During the period of the French protectorate, an educational system based on the French model was inaugurated alongside the traditional system. Initially, the French neglected education in Cambodia. Only seven high school students graduated in 1931, and only 50,000 to 60,000 children were enrolled in primary school in 1936. Fashion There are three important silk textiles in Cambodia. They include the ikat silks, or hol, the twill-patterned silks and the weft ikat textiles. Patterns are made by tying natural and synthetic fibers on the weft threads and then it is dyed. It is repeated for different colors until the patterns firm and cloth is woven. Traditionally, five colors are used. Red, yellow, green, blue and black are the most used.The Sampot Hol is used as a lower garment and as the sampot chang kben. The Pidan Hol is used as a ceremonial hanging used for religious purposes.

Entertainment Currency Cambodian Riel There is a large choice of entertainment venues around Phnom Penh from lively nightclubs to quieter social venues to karaoke bars and fully licensed casinos. For those interested in cultural offerings, there is traditional Cambodian music and dance, especially the graceful and popular Apsara dancing which dates back to the Angkorian period, the Russian trained royal ballet, performances of classical Western music and the French Cultural Center offers something different every night from dance to theatre to cinema and music.
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