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Management through Missions, Goals and Objectives

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on 29 July 2015

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Transcript of Management through Missions, Goals and Objectives

Understanding Organisational Goals
Effectiveness: a paradoxical concept
achieved excellence
spectator interest
adequacy of facilities
career opportunities
student recruitment potential
competitive opportunities
sharing of costs by team
operating costs
activity as a life sport
satisfaction of athletes
sport characteristics
Chelladurai, Haggerty, Campbell, Wall (1981)
Goals and Effectiveness
1. Goals communicate/articulate an organisation's purpose
amateur organisations (increase participation or produce medal winning performances or equitable resources by gender)
2. Goals provide guidelines for managers and other employees in
decision making
performance appraisal
reducing uncertainty (lack of information about the future so that alternatives and their outcome are unpredictable)
motivation
organisational legitimacy (through incorporation and through goals)
Types of Organisational Goals
Official

" the general purposes of the organisation as put forth in the charter, annual reports, public statements by executives, and other authoritative pronouncements"
a.k.a Mission Statement
Charles Perrow (1961, 855)
Official goals are
subjective
not measurable
express organisational values
gives organisational legitimacy to external constituents


Types of Organisational Goals cont'd
Operative
"designate the ends sought through the operating policies of the organisation; they tell us what the organisation actually is trying to do, regardless of what the official goals say are the aims"
Perrow (1961, 855)
eg. make money, build a legacy

Operational
: can be measured objectively
can be official, but are more often operative
developed in sport organisation through MBO (Peter Drucker, 1954); a mechanistic approach without considering human and political aspects of the organisation...a means of goal setting.

Types of Organisation Goals cont'd
Nonoperational
cannot be measured objectively eg. official goals, mission statements that are subjective
Long Term
those to be achieved over a lengthy period eg. NASSM, p.41
Short Term
set for a relatively brief period eg. win 90% league matches
Department/Subunit
usually set for within the organisation specific to that department
should not work counter to the overall goals
should not be ends in themselves, but as a means of achieving the organisation's desired end state
Effectiveness and Efficiency Defined
Effectiveness
: the extent to which an organisation achieves its goals
Efficiency
: the amount of resources used to produced the desired output (CCC cricket at The UWI)

"...because economic costs can usually be more easily measured than social costs, effieciency often produces an escalation in social costs" (Mintzber; 1982, 104)

efficient organisaitons are not always effective (College Football)
Approaches to Studying Organisational Effectiveness
Goal Attainment Approach (Cameron,1980):
an organisation is effective to the extent that it accomplishes stated goals
useful when goals are clear, time bound and measurable

Systems Approach (Cameron,1980)
an organisation is effective to the extent that it acquires useful resources
useful when a clear connection exists between inputs and outputs

Internal Process Approach (Cameron,1980)
an organisation is effective to the extent that it has an absence of internal strain with smooth internal functioning
useful when goals a clear connection exists between organisational processes and the primary task

Approaches to Studying Organisational Effectiveness
Strategic Constituencies Approach (Cameron,1980)
an organisation is effective to the extent that all strategic constituents are at leas minimally satisfied
useful when constituencies have powerful influence on the organisation (as in times of little organisational slack), and it must respond to demands

Competing Values Approach (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1981; 1983)
an organisation is effective to the extent that the emphasis of the organisation in four major areas (human relations, open systems, internal process, rational goal) matches constituent preferences
useful when the organisation is unclear about its own emphasis, or changes in criteria over time are of interest.
GOAL!
Management through Missions, Goals and Objectives
Your Sport Organisation
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