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Unit 12: Reduction & Oxidation (Redox)
Transcript of Unit 12: Reduction & Oxidation (Redox)
Unit 11: Redox
Anode - the site where oxidation occurs
Cathode - the site where reduction occurs
Oxidation - results in the loss of electrons.
Reduction - results in the gain of electrons
Redox helps explain the transfer of electrons. Why do atoms transfer electrons?
How is the transfer of electrons important? Think about how electrons transfer in your everyday life.
Electrochemical Cell - a system which there is an electrical current flowing while a chemical reaction occurs
Electrode - the site at which oxidation or reduction occurs; an anode or a cathode.
Electrolysis - a process in which an electric current forces a nonspontaneous redox reaction to occur.
Electrolytic Cell - a cell that requires electricity to cause a nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur.
Half-reaction - a reaction that shows either the oxidation or reduction portion of a redox reaction.
Oxidation Number - number assigned to keep track of electron gain or loss in redox reactions.
Redox - an oxidation-reduction reaction
Salt Bridge - a part of a voltaic cell that connects two containers and allows for the flow of IONS
Voltaic Cell - an electrochemical cell in which a spontaneous chemical reaction causes a flow of electrons (a battery)
Oxidizing Agent - the substance being reduced in a redox reaction
Reducing Agent - the substance being oxidized in a redox reaction
An electrolytic cell requires electrical energy to produce chemical change. This process is known as electrolysis. (3.2l)
A voltaic cell spontaneously converts chemical energy to electrical energy. (3.2k)
An electrochemical cell can be either voltaic or electrolytic. In an electrochemical cell, oxidation occurs at the anode and reduction at the cathode. (3.2j)
Oxidation numbers (states) can be assigned to atoms and ions. Changes in oxidation numbers indicate that oxidation and reduction have occurred. (3.2i)
In a redox reaction the number of electrons lost is equal to the number of electrons gained. (3.3b)
A half-reaction can be written to represent oxidation. (3.2h)
Oxidation is the loss of electrons. (3.2g)
Reduction is the gain of electrons. (3.2e)
An oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction involves the transfer of electrons (e-). (3.2d)
A half-reaction can be written to represent reduction. (3.2f)
1 - Every uncombined element has an oxidation number of 0
2 - Ions have oxidation numbers equal to their charge
3 - In compounds, group 1 metals are +1 and group 2 metals are +2
4 - Fluorine is always -1. Other halogens are also -1 when they are the most electronegative.
5 - Hydrogen is +1 with nonmetals and -1 with metals
6 - Oxygen is -2. With fluorine it's +2. As peroxide it's -1.
7 - The sum of the oxidation numbers in a compound is equal to 0
8 - The sum of the oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion are equal to the charge.
IN OXIDATION STATE IS REDOX!
A redox reaction is easily identified.
When ANY element changes oxidation states from one side of the equation to the other, that is REDOX!
Reducing Agent is the atom being oxidized
Oxidizing Agent is the atom being reduced
Two (and a) Half Reactions!
Coming to CBS this fall!