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Early Modern Era in the East WHAP
Transcript of Early Modern Era in the East WHAP
The Early Modern East c. 1450-1750
Mughal Empire 1526-1707
Sandwiched between Mughal and Ottomans
These 3 empires known as Gunpowder Empires b/c expand through guns, but never modernize military w/ Europe so end up declining, they were also all three Muslim empires.
Important Leader: Shah Abbas I who used conscripted men a la devshirme system like Ottomans.
Created capital city at Isfahan which became a center of Muslim culture w/ mosques, parks, and craft production.
Declined due to lavish spending and weak leaders after Abbas I.
Most important Islamic empire during this time period.
Famous for their coffeehouses and miniature paintings.
Important leader: Suleiman I/Magnificent (1520-1566) expanded Ottoman Empire and reformed law code, earning nickname Suleiman the Lawgiver.
Trade still backbone of economy.
Russia-ing to Make an Empire
Safavid Empire 1502-1736
Conquest easy with modern weapons.
Once again, conquest brought diseases that the remote peoples of Siberia had no immunity to.
Pressure to convert to Orthodox Christianity... which came from?
Many natives Russified, or transitioned into Russian culture.
Russia used angry serfs who didn't want to be serfs as frontiersmen. They became known as Cossacks, or what I prefer to call Russian Cowboys. Win-win b/c cossacks basically self-governed in new areas and the tsars got rid of potential revolts.
Russia was not a commercial power, meaning that their wealth came from agricultural lands, furs, and minerals.
Russia also becomes both an Asian AND European power.
Russia also colonized differently from the Western European powers.
Colonized regions they already interacted with. Colonization took place at the same time as the development of the Russian state.
The Russian Anomaly
Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
Qing Dynasty 1644-1912
In Anatolia (Turkey) most converted to Islam, however the Balkans remained mostly Christian.
Balkans wanted Ottoman rule because they taxed less and were religiously tolerant.
In fact, a lot of Jewish refugees went to Ottoman Empire.
Buuuuuut then there's the Devshirme. where the Balkan Christians had to send boys to the state who were trained to serve the state.
The best became Janissaries, elite fighting forces of Ottoman Empire.
A small Russia state centered in Moscow started to develop c. 1500.
Ivan III freed RU from Tatar/Mongol rule, then Moscow started to conquer neighboring cities... and 300 years later BAM, empire (with considerable help from Ivan IV/Terrible).
Early expansion into the South and East for security against nomads... and then into Siberia for furs.
Expansion and fear of Tatar attacks led to feudal system w/ restrictions on serfs.
Western Contact and Romanov Policy
Contact with Europe started under Ivan III who wanted to send diplomatic missions to the West. Ivan IV established trade relationships with BR (furs and raw material for manufactured goods).
Brought in IT architects to build cathedrals and palace.
Time of Trouble- Ivan IV died, all the boyars wanted power, POL and SW kept attacking.
Led to Romanov Dynasty.
Romanovs continue expansion- Michael expanded to Ottoman boundaries.
Alexis abolished noble assembly and reformed the church to rid it of Mongol influence.
Serf restrictions tightened, led to revolt, but was brutally put down.
Russia's First Westernization 1690-1790 with Peter I
Peter I, son of Alexis, continued growth of absolutism and expansion.
Went to Europe and brought those ideas and people back to RU.
Followed Louis XIV's lead in FR and strengthened autocratic/absolutist rule.
Killed dissenters, created Secret Police.
Brought in non-aristocrats (boyars) to the bureaucracy.
War with Sweden gave Peter a warm water port on Baltic, making RU a major player in western alignments.
Moved capital to St. Petersburg from Moscow.
We will talk about Enlightened Despots later.
Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang, a peasant, who defeated the Mongols. Once emperor, entitled himself Hongwu.
Purged Mongol influence from China.
Reinstated the Civil Service Exam- both Ming and Qing will greatly expand the practice.
Expanded public works as well as strengthened Neo-Confucianism.
Growth during the Ming
Agricultural expansion and imports from Spain and Portugal facilitated an economic BOOM.
Maize, sweet potatoes, and peanuts could be grown without irrigation= new staples in diet.
High demand for Chinese goods at Macao and Canton (only cities Europeans were allowed to trade in) led to a favorable balance of trade for China. They had all the fine silk, tea, and porcelain for American silver.
Money from merchants went into buying land= social status.
Classical from of literature in China like, The Golden Lotus, used as standard for prose.
Ming Expansion and Retreat
Emperor Yongle sponsored 7 voyages of Zheng He to promote Chinese prestige in the Indian Ocean.
Voyages stop under Emperor Hongle (Yongle's son). Begins to close off China.
Focus on internal matters- Great Wall, fending off nomadic invaders.
As China closed off, European missionaries sought to convert top-down.
Matteo Ricci and Alan Schall try, but with little success.
Manchu nomads had long learned from Chinese bureaucratic methods and employed scholar-officials.
Went to aid Ming Emperor, but took Beijing instead when the emperor killed himself.
Not many changes from Ming to Qing dynasty
Women had fewer rights.
Built up the infrastructure.
Merchants (compradors) did well as exporters of tea and silk.
Manchus became new imperial elites within China. They launched enormous imperial expansion to the north and west.
Through expansion, spread into Central Asia (just like Russia did). However, all conquered area ruled separately from China through Court of Colonial Affairs.
Used a lot of local elites to govern and often imitated Chinese ways of ruling.
Not a lot of Chinese settlement in the conquered regions.
United much of India.
Emperor Akbar (1556-1605) attempted serious accomodation of Hindu majority.
He brought many Hindus into the pol'l-mil. elite and brought religious toleration, even abolishing the jizya tax on non Muslims.
... then he created a state cult to bring loyalty to the emperor (divine faith).
Tolerant of Sikhism: blend of Hindu and Muslim teachings (mostly Sufi).
Zamindars: gov't officials (tax collections)
Shah Jahan: Taj Mahal (Muslim art embedded)
But such toleration usually sparks reaction from Muslim elite.
Emperor Aurangzeb (1658-1707) reversed the earlier reforms and imposed Islamic supremacy.
He did ban sati (widow burning), music, and dancing at court.
They reimposed the jizya tax and destroyed some Hindu temples.
And what a surprise, this policy provoked a Hindu response which led to the end of the Mughal Empire + Imperialism (next time period).
Ottoman Empire 1299-1918
Some might say his turban is magnificent.
THE ORIGINAL STARBUCKS
ISTANBUL WAS CONSTANTINOPLE, NOW IT'S ISTANBUL NOT CONSTANTINOPLE
Some videos for you to watch.
Minus the dark green
Russian E x p a n s i o n
From Daimyo to Shogun
All daimyo had own armies of samurai and ambition to gain more land.
Oda Nobunaga: took Kyoto, united 1/3 of Japan.
His successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, united the rest of Japan.
After Hideyoshi's death, power went back to Edo under Tokugawa Ieyasu, beginning the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Tokugawa Government: 250 hans, or provinces. Daimyo independent, but also had to reside in the Tokyo as well.
If Shogun visiting his home province, daimyo's family had to stay in Tokyo as hostages.
Peasants and farmers
Eta (like untouchables)
Kobayashi Issa (1763-1828), a renowned haiku poet:
Climb Mount Fuji,
But slowly, slowly!
Trusting the Buddha, good and bad,
I bid farewell
To the departing year.
Everything I touch
with tenderness, alas,
pricks like a bramble.
By 1630s nearly all foreigners expelled, only Dutch could trade in one port.