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The demographic transition assignment of China

By Zekai Yu
by

Zekai Yu

on 9 March 2015

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Transcript of The demographic transition assignment of China

The Demographic transition of China

Presented by
Zekai Yu

China has the world's largest population of approximately 1.4 billion people in 2014.
Total Population
In 2014, birth rate was at 12.17 compared to 43.37 in 1963.

Birth rate has dropped significantly due to China's rigid birth control policy, new ways of thinking, growing expenses to raise a child, and education.

Birth Rates
China has a death rate of 7.44 in 2014 compared to 25.43 in 1970.

Death Rate
In 2014, the average Chinese has a life expectancy of 75.3 years old, ranked number 106th in the world.

China's life expectancy has shown dramatic improvement due to advanced medical care compare to the past.


Life Expectancy
Death Rate in the Graph
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China is in stage 4 now and has its birth rate dropped compared to in stage 1,2, and 3. (Stage 1 & 2 show constant birth rate whereas stage 3 shows a drop in birth rate.)
China is in post-transition stage of the demographic transition model, which has a low value of death rate because it has good medical care, better technology, sufficient amount of food, and proper education etc. Death rate remains high in stage 1, but continuously drops in stage 2,3, and 4.

China has experienced an increase in total population since stage one, and it now enjoys a enormous number of population in stage 4, but somehow reaches its peak. Population is predicted to fall in stage 5.
Four stages of DTM and Population Pyramid correspond.
In stage 1 of DTM, there is high death rate and birth rate; thus, its corresponding population pyramid has a really wide base since lots of babies are born and a really pointy top since lots of seniors die.

In stage 2 of DTM, birth rage still remains high while death rate starts to drop significantly. It's corresponding population pyramid as a result has triangle shape, with still a wide base but somehow a less pointy top.

In stage 3 of DTM, birth rate drops while death rate drops too. Thus, its corresponding population pyramid has its base only a little wider than its top; however, young people still make up the most percentage of population.
In stage 4, both death rate and birth rate are kept low. As a result, its corresponding population pyramid has a near oval shape, with its base and top approximately the same wideness, and the middle range of population makes up the most percentage of population.

In stage 5, birth rate is predicted to continuously fall whereas the death rate remains the same level. Its population pyramid will thus have a narrower base than top. Such country will face severe aging problem since the dependent group constructs the majority of the total population.
Challenges facing youthful population
1. It takes time for youthful population to mature and to share the burden for the country's dependent group.
2. In countries where there is a great number of aging population, youthful populations have to bear lots more burden.
3. Government need to provide enough health care and education in order to ensure that such youthful population will contribute back to society once they reach adulthood.
Anti-natalist in China:

1. Wide use of propaganda to promote birth control.
2. Strong central government to support its anti-natalist policy.
3. Provide enough education, technology, and efforts in propaganda to ensure success.
4. Has successfully achieved its goal.
Anti-Natalist in India:

1. Not as successful as China
2. Does not have such single strong government like China to ensure its policy's efficiency.
3. Its democratic government allows uprising against unpopular policy such as anti-natalist.
4. Has so many states that it is nearly impossible to secure success.
5. Used coercion as the only method. As a result, India encountered significant resistance.
Challenges associated with aging population
1. A large aging population requires more government spending on health care, social security, and pension etc.

2. Such aging population increases the burden of the independent group since working people bear the burden to provide support to aging population.

3. Aging population doesn't work, thus do not contribute to a country's growing GDP.

4. A really large aging population means that there is simply not enough people working to ensure social stability( that is, pay for the well being of the aging population.)
Ways to manage aging population
Ways to manage aging population
4. Provide more opportunities for job so that people can earn more income, which leads to an increase in tax revenue to spend for aging population.

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