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Chapter 7 Radio
Transcript of Chapter 7 Radio
Radio Networks and Regulation
The Golden Age of Radio
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
New Radio Technology
The technology - radio is communication through the use of radio waves
1842 Telegraph - Morse
1887 Radio waves – Hertz
1896 Radio transmission – Marconi
Ship to shore
History of Radio
1906 Voice transmission – Fessenden
1907 Audion/vacuum tube - Deforest
WWI 1917 Navy takes control of radio
U.S. seizes Marconi assets
1918 Amateur Radio League
1919 GE, AT&T and Westinghouse form Radio Corporation of America
History of Radio
One to many
1920 first regular broadcasts – KDKA Pittsburgh- Frank Conrad
But how to make money?
1922 AT&T WEAF
1923 – AT&T
1926 – First national networks RCA
NBC Red and NBC blue
1927 - Columbia Broadcasting System
1934 - Mutual Broadcasting System
1943 Government forces RCA to sell
NBC Blue becomes ABC
NBC, CBS, MBS and ABC control radio until 1950s
established Federal Radio Commission to oversee regulation of the airwaves
reserved high powered channels for network affiliates
allowed major networks to gain 70% of US broadcasting
required broadcasters to operate in the “public interest, convenience and necessity”
Federal Communication Commission
Radio networks –interconnected sites sharing programming
1930-1950s Genres develop
Golden Age of Radio
15, 30 and 60 minute shows
Prime time Programming
Template that determines the type of content that will be played and the audience or demographics that will be targeted.
Pop contemporary hit
Far reach - free and did not require full attention
Brought us together for common experience
Carried the emotion of events in close to real time
Present in our homes, listened together
So what ended the Golden Age of Radio?
1950s Television developed by networks
Radio adapts to television
FM catches AM
Shift to local
First medium for leaders to speak directly to citizens
Fairness Doctrine created to ensure fair coverage of issues
Huge popularity of AM Talk radio after repeal of Fairness Doctrine in 1987
Traditional radio stations determine programing formulas by dayparts and by format clocks for the programming hour
Sampling - measurement of representative percentage of audience
Arbitron -independent research firm measures ratings
Today's Radio Industry
Internet only stations
Custom music radio
Radio concentrated in terms of ownership
Group owners 2 or more stations
FCC eliminated ownership limitations
Clear Channel Communication owns more than 850 stations
Federal Communication Commission
Obscenity and indecency
Does not regulate satellite or Internet radio content
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967
National Public Radio
26 Million listeners
806 member stations
Funding reduced drastically in 1980s - may be again
Radio and Politics
Radio Station Format
created by Communications Act of 1934
1938 - limits stations to 50,000 watts broadcasting power
1943 - Forces RCA sale of NBC Blue (ABC)
1949 - Fairness Doctrine equal time for opposing points of view
Radio Act of 1927
Radio Act of 1912
Network radio develops
Radio's Impact on culture
Broadcast radio rely on ratings to attract and target advertisers
Broadcasting vs. Narrowcasting
Radio in the U.S.
Dominated programming through
Owned and operated stations
Radio did not receive 1st Amendment protection and was subject to regulation, unlike print media. Radio was seen as a limited public resource due to
Spectrum Scarcity - limited number of broadcast frequencies.
By late 1930s radio is Americans #1 source for news!
- electronic waves carry sound waves.
- signal carries digital representation of sound, or other information.
High definition radio
- digital transmission allows separate information to be broadcast on same frequency
Satellite radio - Sirius XM
After reading chapter 7 and listening to the lecture on the Golden Age of Radio, listen to a current radio program
Compare it to what you know about radio programming and sponsorship during the Golden Age of Radio.
For full points, use the program listened to in class as an example and be sure to name the sponsor of that radio program.
Be sure to clearly identify the radio program you listen to and the station and time.
This assignment should be about a page turned in to the Chapter 7 Drop-box on e-companion by midnight, Wednesday, 3/5.
Chapter 7 Radio Assignment