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Copy of How to Survive an Active Shooter

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Bob Wirtz

on 19 July 2016

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Transcript of Copy of How to Survive an Active Shooter


How to Survive an Active Shooter

Bob Wirtz

Stewart Memorial Community Hospital
Lake City, Iowa
Questions???
Location of the active shooter
Number of shooters, if more than one
Physical description of shooter/s
Number and type of weapons held by the shooter/s
Number of potential victims at the location
Information to provide to law enforcement or 911 operator
Avoid pointing, screaming and/or yelling
Do not stop to ask officers for help or direction when evacuating, just proceed in the direction from which officers are entering the premises
Officers may be armed with rifles, shotguns and handguns
Officers may use pepper spray or tear gas to control the situation
Officers may shout commands and may push individuals to the ground for their safety
Increased use of alcohol and/or illegal drugs
Unexplained increase in missing work
Noticeable decrease in attention to appearance and hygiene
Depression/withdrawal
Resistance and overreaction to changes in policy and procedures
Repeated violations of hospital policy and procedures
Increased severe mood swings
Noticeably unstable, emotional responses
Explosive outbursts of anger or rage without provocation
An active shooter in your workplace may be a current or former employee, or a friend of a current or former employee. Intuitive directors and coworkers may notice characteristics of potentially violent behavior in an employee. Alert your Human Resources Department if you believe violent behavior is present.
Recognizing potential workplace violence
Take action against the active shooter.
To prevent an active shooter from entering your hiding place:
Lock the door if possible
Blockade the door with heavy furniture
Silence your cell phone and/or pager
Turn off any source of noise (i.e. radios, televisions)
Hide behind large items (i.e. cabinets, desks)
Remain quiet
Help others escape, if possible
Prevent individuals from entering an area where the active shooter may be
Keep your hands visible
Follow the instructions of any police officers
Do not attempt to move wounded people
Call 911 when when you are safe
If there is an accessible escape path, attempt to evacuate the premises. Be sure to:
Have an escape route and have a plan in mind
Evacuate regardless of whether others agree to follow
Leave your belongings behind
Evacuate
Remember: you are the real first responder. In a crisis, you must think as such, act as such and lead as such for you and your staff to survive.
Instead of “what - if”, think “when – then”
You don’t have to be a superhero
Do what you can, as long as you must
You have the right and duty to survive any critical incident
Prior preparation & planning prevents poor performance
Be proactive; DO SOMETHING!
There are the “shepherds & sheep” and there are the “wolves”
Interrupt the bad guy’s plan
Good rules to follow in a critical incident
Depends on the situation!
Scared is OK! Fear HELPS!
LISTEN!
CAN you safely get out?
WHY run away?
WHERE are you going?
What should you do?

Fire
Tornado
Violent Intruder
What are we currently doing?
Paralysis through Analysis
You will be sued!
What defense do you want to offer when your organization OR YOU are sued?:
We mandated through policy that the occupants sit passively and wait for help.
We provided a range of options and communications in order for occupants to make a decision as to their best action to take given the circumstances they faced.
5-6 minutes for law enforcement to arrive. (when seconds count, law enforcement is minutes away.)

What is an active killer (shooter)?

What is the shooters goal?

Who is their target??

How long does the average event last?
Alert Lockdown Inform Counter Evacuate

"THE ALICE PROGRAM WAS CONCEIVED AS A RESULT OF US BEING CONCERNED WITH THE SCHOOL SHOOTING PHENOMENON BACK IN THE ’90’s," SAID GREG CRANE, RESPONSE OPTIONS OWNER AND CO-FOUNDER OF ALICE. "IT BECAME PRETTY OBVIOUS TO US THAT [THE POLICE] WEREN'T GOING TO BE THERE IN TIME TO REALLY HELP AS MANY OF THE FOLKS AS WE'D LIKE TO DURING ONE OF THESE TRAGEDIES."
A.L.
70% - 100% casualties
Stagnant targets
A place to start, but not necessarily not a place to finish

A.L.I.C.E.
0% - 20% casualties
Enpowering staff to do something rather than nothing.
A.L. VS A.L.I.C.E
A.L.I.C.E. was developed by Greg Crane of Burleson, TX.

NYPD, FBI, schools, Law Enforement and businesses have adopted this program.
We have to get over the thought of “it will never happen here.” Stop waiting to prepare and train for tomorrow for what may happen today.

You must prepare yourself and take the lead, not follow when you are in a dangerous situation. If you refuse to be a victim you will survive and save other lives as THEY follow you.
Bob Wirtz
Deerfield Retirement Community

Urbandale, Iowa

The first officers to arrive to the scene will not stop to help the injured persons.

Once you have reached a safe location or an assembly point, you will likely be held in that area by law enforcement until the situation is under control and all witnesses have been identified and questioned. Do not leave the safe location or assembly point until law enforcement authorities have instructed you to do so.
Remain calm and follow officers’ instructions
Put down any items in your hands (i.e. bags, jackets etc)
Immediately raise hands and spread fingers
Keep hands visible at all times
Avoid making quick movements toward officers such as attempting to hold on to them for safety
How to react when law enforcement arrives
Law enforcement’s purpose is to stop the active shooter as soon as possible. Officers will proceed directly to the area in which the last shots were heard.
Officers usually arrive in teams of 4
Officers may wear regular patrol uniforms or external bulletproof vests, kevlar helmets, and other tactical equipment
How to respond when law enforcement arrives
Suicidal; comments about “putting things in order”
Behavior which is suspect of paranoia, (“everybody is against me”)
Increasingly talks of problems at home
Escalation of domestic problems into the workplace; talk of severe financial problems
Talk of previous incidents of violence
Empathy with individuals committing violence
Increase in unsolicited comments about firearms, other dangerous weapons and violent crimes
Employees and customers are likely to follow the lead of managers during an emergency situation.
Take immediate action
Remain calm
Lock and barricade doors
Evacuate staff and customers via a preplanned evacuation route to a safe area.
Reactions of directors during an active shooter situation
Human Resources’ Responsibilities
Conduct effective employee screening and background checks
Create a system for reporting signs of potentially violent behavior
Make counseling services available to employees
Preparing for and managing an active shooter situation
If evacuation is not possible, find a place to hide where the active shooter is less likely to find you.
Your hiding place should:
Be out of the active shooter’s View
Provide protection if shots are fired in your direction
Not trap or restrict your options for movement
Hide Out
Quickly determine the most reasonable way to protect your own life. Remember that customers and clients are likely to follow the lead of employees and managers during an active shooter situation.
How to respond when an active shooter is in your building.
You are Americans!
9/11 Flight
You are Capable!
Photo by Chase Damiano, VT student
We Can Do Better!
Which is Faster:
ACTION or REACTION?
Cause “Fear” in the Bad Guy.
Distractions
Gain Control
Escape
What if Escape is not Possible?
In Reality, NO!

But it does sometimes happen, so we need to be prepared.
Does Violence Happen A Lot?
Physical, Mental, and Equipment Preparation
Which is the most important in violent situations?

Preparation is the key – 5 P’s Proper Preparation Prevents Poor Performance.
Be careful how/what you practice …
You may get very good at the wrong thing!

We must prepare as if it will happen to us, and at a level that reflects reality.

Are We Ready??
Know them
Use them
Help physically and mentally incapacitated
Take injured out with you
Scan area for additional Threats while moving and when arriving at Rally Points
Get Out if you can
Do not go to your car
Head to the Rally Point
Teach skills that interrupt the physical and mental act of shooting accurately.
Noise, Movement, Distractions

OODA Loop (Observe, Orient, Decide, Act)

One Second of an OODA Loop Interruption could save a life.
Lockdown means to Secure-in-Place
It is a Viable Option
Don’t rely on the lock
Barricade
Deny either Opening or Passage
Tell them what you know

Turn A.L. into A.L.i.C.E.
Alert
Lockdown
inform
Counter, and/or
Evacuate

Columbine, 1999:
The Game Changer, … or should have been.
Passive, Static Response = ?
What
does the Body do and
Why
?
1. Fight
2. Flight
3. Freeze
Which response does LOCKDOWN most closely resemble?
Is just one always the best and only option??
Originally designed to protect whom?
Post-1999, Schools needed a procedure
LE’s focus was on its own response
Are Education/Health/Business Professionals equipped to construct the response to an …. Active Killer?
Is a Violent Intruder an educational or criminal event?
What do police officers suggest to their own kids in response to an attack?
Who dictates Fire response?
Suicide
Civilian Intervention
Police Intervention

Which would be the preferred method?
Lock the door and sit quietly in the dark and wait for rescue

This is an unrealistic response to a very real danger
Alert, Lockdown, inform, Counter, Evacuate

Comprehensive Preparedness for a Violent Intruder Event

Utilizing Infrastructure, Technology, and
Human Action to Increase Survival Chances
Employees typically do not just “snap”, but display indicators of potentially violent behavior over time. If these behaviors are recognized, they can often be managed and treated.

Potentially violent behaviors by an employee may include one or more of the following (this list of behaviors is not comprehensive, nor is it intended as a mechanism for diagnosing violent tendencies).
Indicators of potential violence by an employee
Continuation of the ALERT
Provide Real-Time Information – HOW?
Allows for Good Decision-Making
Confuse and Frustrate Attacker – HOW?
Talk to/at THEM
Redirect focus and anger … at what??
Take advantage of the attacker’s fragile psychological state.
SUICIDAL
What historically has been the trigger?
Source: NYPD, Active Shooter, Recommendations and Analysis for Risk Mitigation. 2011
Keep you in to KILL YOU.
Keep you in for SAFETY.
For the Shooter/Terrorist…

Command
Mere exhibition of intent forces command change
Control
Procedure requires everyone to remain
Convenience
Minimal action achieves most difficult objective (containment of large, complicated structures)
For the Police/Admin…

Command
One word can initiate procedure
Control
Know where everyone is located
Convenience
Easily administered and followed
During this Course:
Which yields greatest impact on safety?
Don’t get overwhelmed by the big picture.

Remember: ABN (Anything Beats Nothing)
"In a moment of decision, the best thing you can do is the right thing.  The next best thing is the wrong thing. The worst thing you can do is nothing.” Theodore Roosevelt
Shooters
Police
Shooters:+
Police: 20%
High
Low
Hit Rate
Skill Level

How difficult is it to interrupt the skill set needed to shoot accurately?
IMMEDIATELY, OPTIONS ARE CREATED
STAYED DOWN
STAYED DOWN
BARRICADED
BARRICADED
AFTER 1ST TIME
JUMPED
Data from Chapter 8, Virginia Governor’s Report on Virginia Tech.
Hallway – Killed 1
Room 205 –
12 Present
Killed – 0
Wounded – 0
Room 207 –
13 Present
Killed – 5
Wounded - 6
Room 211 –
19 Present
Killed – 12
Wounded - 6
Room 200
No Class
Room 204 –
19 Present
Killed – 2
Wounded - 3
Room 206 - 14 Present
Killed – 10
Wounded -2
Offices
Room 210
No Class
A.L. C.E.
SWAT Officers during the 90’s shootings
Richland High School, January 1999
April 1999
Led to questioning of Educators
One-size fits all strategy - LOCKDOWN
They were doing all they KNEW!!
Inadequate Preparation and Conditioning
This program has one primary focus: SURVIVAL of those who find themselves under attack
Questions That We Had:
How the program started...
Can a singular strategy address all variables?
What recommendations are given when passive measures have failed?
Active Killer Hit & Kill Rates vs. Number of Shots Fired: Not Normal – WHY?
Rape Aggression Defense, Airline Passengers, Stranger Danger responses to attacks? Are Recommendations Passive?
Can Accountability, Responsibility, or Liability trump SURVIVABILITY?
1. Think like a potential target, not like an administrator or police officer.
2. What would you want the knowledge, ability, and the authority to do?
3. Understand that:
a. Command, Control, and Convenience are not first priority
b. SURVIVAL, not ACCOUNTABILITY, has to be priority
Planning
Must have a Crisis Response/Management Plan in place that addresses all phases of Emergencies:

Preparation: Disaster Plans, Drills

Mitigation: Physical Security

Response – Our purpose today

Recovery: Reunification, Mental Health Resources
What are examples of events/actions
during these phases?
Who should be responsible to create and enact the plan?

Who should be at the table in formulating the plan?

Who should be advised of the plan?
Planning
A.L.I.C.E.
What are the Benefits of Lockdown?
It will not be pretty,
and you can’t make it pretty…
Feb 15, 2010
... Man wounded in Scotland Memorial Hospital shooting
Mar 2, 2010
... A Brookfield man being treated in the cardiac unit at Danbury Hospital allegedly pulled a handgun from his hospital gown and fired it
Mar 16, 2010
... Duke University officials remained tight-lipped Monday about a fatal shooting outside Duke Hospital early Saturday morning that involved two ...
Mar 31, 2010
... BOSTON -- No criminal charges will be filed against an off-duty special police officer who shot and killed a man during a knife attack
Apr 19, 2010
... Police on Tuesday were investigating why a man opened fire outside a Knoxville hospital, killing a woman and himself
Jun 14, 2010
... WICHITA — Wichita police took a 33-year-old woman into custody this morning as a suspect in the Sunday morning shooting death of a …
Jul 9, 2010
... A shooting at a Meridian hospital, allegedly by East Mississippi Correctional Facility inmate, William McVay
July 9, 2010
… Murder-Suicide in Mayfield Heights Ohio hospital
Aug 16, 2010
... A patient at a Las Vegas hospital was shot and killed by his wife, who then shot herself, police said.
Jan 4, 2011
… University New Mexico Hospital
Feb 10, 2012
… New Britain CT
Recent Hospital
Shootings
It's going to end violently...
You Will Be on Your Own for 5 Minutes
Where did LOCKDOWN come from?
Three Human Reactions
to Fear
Learn From the Past
Or Be Destined...
THIS IS A PRODUCT OF TRAINING AND CONDITIONING, AND THIS IS A POSSIBLE OUTCOME …

28 vs. 2 (Fatalities)
Passive vs. Proactive
The Lesson from VT:
A Comprehensive Program

The whole building is not in immediate lethal threat, why treat it as such?
“LOCKDOWN!”
“LOCKDOWN!”
ALERT:
CHANGE THIS:
“LOCKDOWN,
LOCKDOWN”
TO THIS:
WE HAVE A MAN
WITH A GUN 3RD
FLOOR NORTH
HALL.
WE HAVE A MAN WITH A GUN 3rd FLOOR NORTH HALL
Alert
Communication
How will the vast majority be informed as quickly as possible?PA, text Messaging, email Two-way radios
Someone needs to become a play-by-play announcer
Helps both occupants and police
Lockdown
nform
Counter
Counter
Evacuate
Evacuation Routes and Rally Points
SURVIVAL:
Mental, Physical or Both?
Review
How to Survive an Active Shooter
Hospital Issues
Liability - a crippling word
As a last resort, and only when your life is in imminent danger,
Attempt to disrupt and/or incapacitate the active shooter by:
Acting as aggressively as possible against him/her
Throwing items and improvising weapons
Yelling
Committing to your actions
50%
Full transcript