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Copy of Theatre History

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Rosali Peccia

on 17 April 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Theatre History

History Of the Theater The End It started with a Greek philosopher decided what theater, Aristotle At this point, Rome had fallen and people were now preparing to die in the end of the world. Theater was greatly looked down upon because people were expected to be preparing for the end of the world and not be having fun. ". The Industrial Revolution changed everything:
Gas lighting was introduced
Arc-;lighting followed
elaborate mechanisms were introduced
(fly-lofts, elevators, revolving stages) The Industrial Revolution For now... Origins of Theater Ritualistic Dancing Diaglogue Sounds and basic and , , In the 14th and 15th Cenutry, especially the tragedies, should contain. He came up with the Six Elements : 1)
6) Character In Greek Theater: Thought Diction Music Spectacle Plot Who creates Conflict? What does the play
mean? The Language fits
the tone and style
of the play. Who is Portrayed? Sound Elements of a play. Like,
sound effects, soundtrack, or chorus. Visual Elements of a play. Like, scenery, costuming, ect. And finally, the A play needed a beginning, middle and end. Aristotle structured his plot like this.... Exposition Rising Rising Rising Rising
Action Climax Denouement Thespis defined theater as the art of acting a part onstage with a dramatic impersonation of a person other than oneself. (534 BC. possibly an actor,
playwright or priest) Greek theater took place on hillside stadiums
called . Amphitheaters These plays included a chorus and
leader. Lines were chanted rather than spoken
and masks were worn to symbolize different
characters. High-soled boots were worn to add height. (introduced what theaudience should understand, feel, ect.) Greek Theater was defined by five Playwrights. They were: Aeschylus was most famous for his tragic trilogy "Oresteia". Sophocles was most famous for his trilogy "Oedipus Rex". He also was responsible for the concept of the third
actor. He also reduced the role of the chorus focused on interaction between characters the development of the character itself. Eurpedes employed a more natural, human approach in his plays. formal and remote than previous plays. The other two playwrights wrote . They were Comedies Aristopanes Menander Tragedies were more popular and universal In Rome at the same time the Greeks were declining their empire was on the rise. In theater, the Romans borrowed a lot from the Greeks. There were two forms of theater in Rome. Fabula Palliata was translations of Greek plays into Latin. The idea of the subplot was also introduced. Fabula Togata was native plays based on farce and physical humor. The majority of plays were this form.
More serious plays were written, but they were intended to be read, rather than performed.
At this point, the stage was raised and actors
became more expressive.
One of the greatest impacts Roman theater had
was lowering the esteem of the theater in
the eyes of the Catholic Church. Dark Ages / The Middle Ages He also introduced the second actor. They were much less and . at the time and Aristotle said that they must be
imitations of real life and evoke emotion, such as
pity or fear, causing them to experience a
or a cleansing through extreme emotion. catharsis depended on topical humor and satire. This type
of theater provided an outlet for the frustrations
of society. Comedies Oedipus Rex An example of a Tragedy The End Medieval Theater While theatrical practices were kept up by street players, jugglers, and animal trainers, it was the Church that worked to
keep theater alive through the this time. The Renaissance and Reformation The Renaissance was a rebirth but really a rediscovery of the classical age in Europe. It affected the arts greatly all over. But the greatest amount in Italy, where classical Roman plays were revived. In England during the 15 and 16th century, stages entailed open courtyards of the inns to the stages of performances. These 'apron stages' were surrounded by galleries and were completely open They were so open that the audience not only sat in the galleries but on the stage itself. The emphasis was moved to dialogue, rather than
action. The plays still had a moralistic tone to
them, however, the themes of religious virtue were replaced by those of loyalty to the government and a stable society. The term 'play-maker' refers to the fact that the
emphasis was on the performers. rather than the
playwrights. Troupes of companies began to form and had a repertory of plays for performance. These companies were guild-like in their organization, with a group of owner actors. journeymen and hirelings. At this point the plays were based on simple plots or previous works, and a writer 'made' the work more technical rather than creative.
Writers avoided the classics, as they mostly revolved around religion. Europe was very much in disagreement over religious ideas and the classic plays only caused problems.
Writers began to write their original plays that were non-political and non-religious. Theater Companies Theater companies were often banned by authorities. By merchants, The Theater was viewed as an opportunity for lazy kids to take up apprenticeships and bum around all day. By to the wives, it was viewed as the place for all the women of low-class to go and hang at.
These views led to the theater eventually being taken over the the state. Elizabethan William Shakespeare A playwright and actor, Shakespeare produced many great works that are timeless for their understanding of human nature.
His plays attracted people of all social and economic levels. Shakespeare encouraged a more natural approach to performance and style of speaking, 16th Century Performances still
took in open air
theaters like this. The Republic and Restoration 1642 Parliament closed down the theaters in England
and until 1660, when a new king comes to throne, there is little drama that takes place in England. However, in France, theather was thriving well and had a lot of influence. Theater was beginning to focus more on scenery and spectacle rather than the plot or actors. Theater was also being designed for royal pleasure. It was also during this time when women began to appear onstage. The Age of Reason .
Voltaire ( a philosopher) suggested that people desired freedom. Thus plays began to reflect the lives and behaviours of ordinary people as characters. Theatre companies started to give actors permanent roles. Actors learned their characters and
specialized in them. Theater grew greatly in America.
People had leisure time to kill,
better qualities and standards of
life. As population grew, so did
the Theater. American Theater was influenced by London Theater. It was evident in the style used and the obvious bits of English traditions. America inherited the "star system' Actors went from being viewed as uneducated, lower-class entertainers to very socially respectable. The Modern Era Theatre was advancing. It developed into popular forms of drama such as major musicals and Broadway.
A musical is: A play in which singing and dancing play an essential part. Musicals developed from light opera in the early 20th century.
In addition, people began enacting "Morality Plays" also known as Everyman plays. These were plays that were used to teach some kind of moral or lesson.also These plays were created by regular people, and not from the church.

Common themes included good vs. evil,
the 7 virtues and vices Activity Time! Now that you know what a "Morality" Play is, you will create a short scene that reflects the same qualities of a "Morality" Play ! Step 1: Choose a partner to work with

Step 2: You will be given a topic (one of the 7 virtues/vices)

Step 3: Spend the next 10 minutes creating a short scene
(no more than 2 minutes long) that demonstrates your topic. During this period, Priests enacted parts of the bible, in order to educate the public about God. These were known as "Passion Plays A modern example of a "Morality" or "Everyman' play QUESTION!?

What are some other reasons you think the government would want to take control of theater? The Age of Reason reflected a time where people began thinking about life more reasonably and more logically. Belief in religion and myth was being replaced by belief in science and fact. American Theatre finally began to develop Question?
Who is your favourite actor/actress and why Theatre was beginning to compete with television. Many playwrights experimented with elements of theatre such as themes, dialogue, costume, set design, and so on. An example of a musical 18th century 19th century 20th Century
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