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Personality Disorders

Personality disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions in which chronic behavior patterns cause serious problems with relationships and work.

David Bosteder

on 10 March 2010

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Transcript of Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders By: David Bosteder & Josh Jackson Personality disorders are a group of mental disturbances defined by the DSM-IV-TR as "enduring pattern[s] of inner experience and behavior" that are sufficiently rigid and deap-seated to bring a person into repeated conflicts with his or her social and occupational environment In order to be
diagnosed as having
a personality disorder, the patient
must exhibit issues in the
following areas;... Perception Perception and
Interpretation of
the self and
other people Intensity and duration of feelings and their appropriateness to situations Relationships with others Ability to control impulses It is possible for patients to have a so-called dual diagnosis; for example, they may have more than one personality disorder, or a personaltiy doisorder together with a substance-abuse problem. By contrast, DSM-IV-TR classifies personality disorders into three clusters based on symptom similarities: Cluster A: (Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal) Cluster B: Cluster C: (Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic) Patients appear overly emotional, unstable , or self-dramatizing to others. ( Avoidant, dependant, obsessive compulsive) Patients appear tense and anxiety-ridden to others David Bosteder Josh Jackson Patients appear odd or eccentric to others (Cluster A): Patients with Paranoid Personality disorder are characterized by suspiciousness and a belief that others are out to harm or cheat them. They have problems with intimacy and may join cults or groups with paranoid belief systems. (Cluster A): Schizoid patients are percieved by others as loners without close family relationships or social contacts. Indeed, they are aloof and prefer to be alone. They may appear cold to others because they rarely display strong emotions. (Cluster A): Patients diagnosed as schizotypal are often considered odd or eccentric because they pay little attention to their clothing and sometimes have peculiar speech mannerisms. (Cluster B): Patients with antisocial personality disorder are someties refered to as sociopaths or psychopaths. They are characterized by lying, manipulativenessness, and a selfish disregard for the rights of others; some may act impulsively. People with antisocial personality disorder are frequently chemically dependant and sexually promiscuous. (Cluster B): Patients with the borderlie personality disorder (BPD) are highly unstable, with wide mood swings, a history of intense but stormy relationships, impulsive behavior, and confusion about career goals, personal values, or sexual orientation.These often highly conflictual ideas may correspond to an even deeper confusion about their sense of self (identity). People with BPD frequently cut or burn themselves, or threaten or attempt suicide. Many of these patients have histories of severe childhood abuse or neglect. (Cluster B): Patients diagnosed with histrionic disorder impress others as overly emotional, overly dramatic, and hungry for attention. They may be flirtatious or seductive as a way of drawing attention to themselves, yet they are emotionally shallow. Histrionic patients often live in a romantic fantasy world and are easily bored with routine. Although historically, in clinical settings, the disorder has been more associated with women, there may be bias toward diagnosing women with the histrionic personality disorder. (Cluster B): Narcissistic patients are characterized by self-importance, a craving for admiration, and exploitative attitudes towards others. They have unrealistically inflated views of their talents and accomplishments, and may become extremely angry if they are critcized or outshone by others. Narcissists may be professionally successful but rarely have long-lasting intimate relationships. (Cluster C): Patients with avoidant personality disorder are fearful of rejection and shy away from situations or occupations that might expose their supposed inadequacy. They may reject opportunities to develop close relationships because of their fears of criticism or humiliation. Patients with this personality disorder are often diagnosed with dependant personality disorder as well. Many also fit the criteria for social phobia. (Cluster C): Patients with Dependant personality disorder are afraid of being on their own and typically develop submissive or compliant behaviors in order to avoid displeasing people. They are afraid to question authority and often ask others for guidance or direction. Dependent personality disorder is diagnosed more often in women, but it has been suggested that this finding reflects social pressures on women to conform to gender stereotyping or bias on the part of clinicians. (Cluster C): Patients diagnosed with Obsessive Compulsive disorder are preoccupied with keeping order, attaining perfection, and maintaining mental and interpersonal control. They may spend a great deal of time adhering to plans, schedules, or rules from which they will not deviate, even at the expense of openness, flexibility, and efficiency. These patients are often unable to relax and may become workaholics. They may have problems in employment as well as in intimate relationships because they are very stiff and formal, and insist on doing everything their way Character is defined as the set of attitudes and behavior patterns that the individual acquires or learns over time. It includes such personal qualities as work and study habits, moral convictions, neatness or cleanliness, and consideration of others. Since children (Freud) must learn to adapt to their (... Freud) specific families, they may develop personality disorders in the course of struggling (... Freuudddd...) to survive psychologically in disturbed or stressful families. There are no tests that can provide a definitive diagnosis of personality disorder. Most doctors will evaluate a patient on the basis of several sources of information collected over a period of time in order to determine how long the patient has been having difficulties, how many areas of life are affected, and how severe is the dysfunction The most effective preventative strategy for personality disorders is early identification and treatment of children at risk. Typical Onset: Personality disorders persists and grows with you starting at childhood. Percentages of population possessing the following disorders and gender based occurences:

Cluster A:
Paranoid Personality Disorder: .5%-2.5% of general population
Schizoid Personality Disorder: 2% of the general population (slightly more common for men than women)
Schizotypal Persoanlity Disorder: 3% of general population (slightly more common for men than women)
Cluster B:
Antisocial Personality Disorder: 1% of female population, 3% of male population
Borderline Personality Disorder: 2% of general population, (predominate in female diagnosees)
Histrionic Personality Disorder: 2%-3% of general population, (more common for females than males)
Narcissistic Personality Disorder: -1% of general population, (more common for males than females)
Cluster C:
Avoidant Personality Disorder: .5%-1% of general population
Dependant Personality Disorder: 1%-2% of general population, (more commen for females than males)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: 1% of general population, (male to female diagnosis ratio; 2:1)

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