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Bioengineering in Beef Production

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BÜŞRA ÖZTÜRK

on 29 January 2014

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Transcript of Bioengineering in Beef Production

Bioengineering in Beef Production

What will we learn in this presentation?

1_What is the meat?
2_What are the sources of meat?
3_What is the composition of the meat?
4_What is the beef production?
5_What are examples of meat products?
6_What is the importance nutrition of meat?
7_What are the criteria of quality in meat products?
8_What are the deterioration of meat and meat products?
9_What are the methods of preserving meat products?
10_What are the rules hygiene and sanitation in the meat industry?
11_How the storage of meat?

What is the meat?
2_What are the sources of meat?
3_What is the composition of the meat?
5_What are examples of meat products?
4_What is the meat production?
2_Cured meat pieces
1.Cured-raw meats do not undergo any heat treatment during their manufacture. They undergo a processing period, which comprises curing, fermentation and ripening in controlled climatized conditions, which makes the products palatable. The products are consumed raw/uncooked.
2. Cured-cooked meats, after the curing process of the raw muscle meat, always undergo heat treatment to achieve the desired palatability.

Meat is mainly composed of water and protein, and is usually eaten together with other food. It is edible raw, but is normally eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned or processed in a variety of ways. Also meat means the whole or part of a carcass of.
Meat sources examples;
*Cow
*Pig
*Poultry
*Ovine
*Bovine

Muscle composition gives meat its characteristic appearance. Muscle tissue is approximately:
• 72% water
• 20% protein
• 7% fat
• 1% minerals
Processed meat as a category is a continuum of products ranging from meat products with a minimum of 30% meat to products that are all meat flesh. The meat must have undergone a method of processing other than boning, slicing, dicing, mincing, or freezing.
The definition for processed meat encompasses the processes of smoking, drying, salting, curing, fermenting, pickling, cooking and forming.

İMPORTANT
Processed meat may contain other ingredients but must contain no less than
300 g/kg meat, i.e. they must consist of at least 30% meat.
Fresh
processed
meat products
Cured
meat
pieces
Raw-cooked
meat
products
Precooked-cooked
meat
products
Raw-fermented
sausages
Dried
meat
products
Processed Meat Product
1_ Fresh processed meat products
These products are meat mixes composed of comminuted muscle meat with varying quantities of animal fat. Products are salted only, curing is not practiced. Non-meat ingredients are added in smaller quantities for improvement of flavour and binding, in low-cost versions larger quantities are added for volume extension. All meat and non-meat ingredients are added fresh (raw).
Cured meat cuts are made of entire pieces of muscle meat and can be sub-divided into two groups, cured-raw meats and cured-cooked meats.
The curing for both groups, cured-raw and cured-cooked, is in principle similar: The meat pieces are treated with small amounts of nitrite, either as dry salt or as salt solution in water.

The difference between the two groups of cured meats is:
İmportant
3_Raw-cooked meat products
The product components muscle meat, fat and non-meat ingredients which are processed raw, i.e. uncooked by comminuting and mixing. The resulting viscous mix/batter is portioned in sausages or otherwise and thereafter submitted to heat treatment, i.e. “cooked”. The heat treatment induces protein coagulation which results in a typical firm-elastic texture for raw-cooked products In addition to the typical texture the desired palatability and a certain degree of bacterial stability is achieved.
4_Precooked-cooked meat products
Precooked-cooked meat products contain mixes of lower-grade muscle trimmings, fatty tissues, head meat, animal feet, animal skin, blood, liver and other edible slaughter by-products. There are two heat treatment procedures involved in the manufacture of precooked-cooked products. The first heat treatment is the pre cooking of raw meat materials and the second heat treatment the cooking of the finished product mix at the end of the processing stage.
5_Raw-fermented sausages
Raw-fermented sausages are uncooked meat products and consist of more or less coarse mixtures of lean meats and fatty tissues combined with salts, nitrite (curing agent), sugars and spices and other non-meat ingredients filled into casings. They receive their characteristic properties (flavour, firm texture, red curing colour) through fermentation processes. Shorter or longer ripening phases combined with moisture reduction (“drying”) are necessary to build-up the typical flavour and texture of the final product. The products are not subjected to any heat treatment during processing and are in most cases distributed and consumed raw.
6_Dried meat products
Dried meat products are the result of the simple dehydration or drying of lean meat in natural conditions or in an artificially created environment.Pieces of lean meat without adherent fat are cut to a specific uniform shape that permits the gradual and equal drying of whole batches of meat. Dried meat is not comparable to fresh meat in terms of shape and sensory and processing properties, but has significantly longer shelf-life. Many of the nutritional properties of meat, in particular the protein content, remain unchanged through drying.
6_What is the importance nutrition of meat?
Nutritional significance;

Meat is a good source of easily digestible protein and contains essential amino acids which are vital for growth and maintenance of the body. It is also a good source of vitamins and minerals particularly iron. Processing, to form sausages, patties, or dried meat, does not have a substantial effect on the nutritive value when compared to normal cooking processe
7_What are the criteria of quality in meat products?
The quality of meat and meat products is defined by the following criteria:

*Palatability (typical texture and consistency, juiciness, good flavour);
* Proportion of lean meat to fat;
*Freshness and adequate conservability of the products;
*Absence of harmful micro-organisms or substances; and
*Appropriate (preferably minimal) use of additives and meat extenders
The different criteria need different methods of quality control, such as:
*Organoleptic evaluation
*Physical test methods
*Chemical analysis
*Microbiological examination
8_What are the deterioration of meat and meat products?
a_
Characteristics of Deterioration in Food
The microbial deterioration of a food is usually manifested by alterations in the appearance, texture, color, odor, or flavor or by slime formation. Alterations in appearance include color changes, formation of pockets of gas or swelling, and microbial growth (especially molds).
Characteristics of Deterioration in Food. As some meat products deteriorate, they tend to become soft or mushy.
Degradation of food results in the formation of compounds which have odors and flavors different from those of the fresh food.
b. Microbial Spoilage.
Examine the product for abnormal color(s), odor(s), and
texture(s) which may indicate microbial deterioration. Microbial spoilage may be caused by yeast, mold, and/or bacteria. The particular color, odor, or texture change will depend upon the type or species of microorganisms involved.
c. Color Changes
. The following color changes may indicate microbial
spoilage: red spots; blue, green, purple, and yellowish discoloration; green core
(sausage); greenish-blue to brownish-black spots; abnormal pink, cream color, or white coloration.
d_Particular Odors;
The following odors have been associated with microbial deterioration: tainted, gassy, sour, cold storage flavor, musty or earthy, putrid, and acid.Poultry products may also exhibit a dishrag odor, similar to the smell of a dirty dishrag, usually a strong, sour odor.
9_What are the methods of preserving meat products?
Meat preservation, includes a set treatment processes for preserving nutritious properties, taste, texture and color of raw, partially cooked or cooked meats while keeping them edible and safe to consume.
For example;
a_Hanging
b_Freezing
c_Canning
d_Curing
e_Smoking
Although not a method of preservation, a period of ‘hanging’ can improve the flavor and texture of meats by giving natural enzymes time to break down tough muscle fibers. The temperature range for hanging is 33 to 40 degrees. Hanging times range from 24 to 48 hours, to even longer for a more tender meat (It must remain under 40 degrees F!)
a_Hanging
b_Freezing

It is quick and easy and preserves the nutritional value and flavor. Obviously though, freezing depends upon a supply of electrical power. Freezing meat is best at 0 degrees F, for longest shelf life. Wrap all pieces securely in individual moisture-proof packages to prevent freezer burn. Label each package with they type of meat and the date is was frozen. All meats will begin to deteriorate in the freezer though.
Canning meat is convenient and economical, and is not endangered by power failures. Canned foods keep for a very long time (years).
This is easily and readily prevented by being sure to to follow proper canning recipes, and to heat containers for an extended time at 240 degrees F. This temperature requires a pressure canner with its control set for at least 10 pounds.
c_Canning
İmportant
Be aware that the greatest danger in canning is botulism, a severe and often fatal form of food poisoning caused by bacteria that thrive in airless conditions.
Salt is the only essential ingredient for curing. It retards spoilage by drawing water out of the meat while also killing decay-causing microorganisms. Meat cured with salt alone will store well (but will be tough and dry). ‘Kosher salt’ can be used for curing meat and is a type of coarse salt which is usually made without additives. ‘Curing salt’ is most commonly used today and is a special blend of salt and other ingredients including sodium nitrite (which has become somewhat controversial regarding potential health issues with large doses).
d_Curing


Curing is the first step in the smoking process, essential for good flavor. ‘Cold smoking’ is best for preservation (and for adding flavor) with temperatures between 70 and 90 degrees F, and is more easily accomplished during cooler months. The cold smoking process may range from 1 to 14 days. The preservative benefit of smoking is that the smoke contains tar-like substances that are deposited on the food. To a greater or lesser extent, they seal the surface, keeping air from coming in contact with the food.
e_Smoking

Preconditions for efficient cleaning and sanitation are:
*
Premises and equipment must be “cleaning-friendly” which means easy and practicable access to
*
All contaminated areas,smooth surfaces and adequate materials for building structures and equipment to be cleaned.
*
Proven methods for meat plant cleaning and sanitation must be available.
*
Personnel must be regularly instructed and trained in cleaning and sanitation methods
10_What are the rules hygiene and sanitation in the
meat industry?
Handling Meat

When preparing any type of meat, fish, or poultry, make sure to wash your hands frequently, and prepare the meat on a separate surface from other cooking materials. Germs spread easily, so keep vegetables and other ingredients away from meat, especially if you are not cooking them together in the same dish. Use separate cutting boards and clean all cooking utensils after they come into contact with raw meat.
11_How the storage of meat?
Safe freezing and refrigeration time also depends on the temperature of the freezer and refrigerator. The closer to 0 degrees that the freezer is kept, the more likely it is to stay fresh and retain nutrients. Refrigerators should be kept at around 34 degrees —just above freezing— to effectively prolong the shelf-life of foods.
Refrigerated

Uncooked Poultry: 2 days
Cooked Poultry: 4 days
Uncooked Beef: 2 days
Cooked Beef: 4 days
Uncooked Fish: 2 days
Cooked Fish: 4 days
Frozen

Uncooked Poultry: 6 months
Cooked Poultry: 4 months
Uncooked Beef: 6 months
Cooked Beef: 4 months
Uncooked Fish: 6 months
Cooked Fish: 4 months
Keep meat and poultry in its original packaging in the refrigerator. To freeze, slip the packaging into a resealable freezer bag. If you’re freezing for several months, it’s best to wrap pieces individually in plastic before bagging; this will make them less vulnerable to freezer burn. Another way to cut the risk of freezer burn is to buy vacuum-packed meats and poultry (which can also last about 2 days longer in the refrigerator). Leave seafood in its original packaging and, if possible, place on a bowl of ice in the refrigerator. However, live shellfish (like clams) should not be put on ice; open or poke holes in the packaging. To freeze seafood, slip the original packaging into a resealable freezer bag.
Büşra ÖZTÜRK

University of Natural Sciences and Humanities
Dziękuję bardzo...
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