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Reformation in Europe and England
Transcript of Reformation in Europe and England
Lutheranism & Calvinism
Setting the Scene
Do NOW: What conditions can encourage the desire for religious reform?
What needs to get reformed ?
1. Abuse of power by church official and positions
Failing to meet their responsibilities in the position they hold.
All Christians should have equal access to God's thoughts, scripture and the Bible
How did the Jesuits help strengthen the Catholic Church?
wrote a book "Institutes of the Christian Religion"
how to organize and run a Protestant church
Christian humanism: primary goal to reform the Roman Catholic Church
Desiderius Erasmus: (leader)
Christians should show people how to live good lives on a daily basis
Should not live your life good only for purpose to be saved
EDUCATION = Power
2. Want for Salvation
state of being saved
AKA: going to heaven through faith and good deed
3. Worship of Relics
Religious object: Indulgence(holy paper) piece of cloth from cardinals rob
People bought these object in hope to be saved or be forgiven
TRANSLATED the BIBLE from LATIN to GERMAN
Why did he do this?
People should study the BIBLE themselves
Created : Protestantism
He faced opposition not only from the catholic church , the Lutherans
Catholic Church response
What was the Council of Trent?
What did the council do?
What was the Society of Jesus?
What else did the
Catholic Church do to stop the spread of Protestantism?
Gave birth too............
Henry was MAD
Ann's enemies began to plot her down fall
Thomas Cromwell began drawing the attention of the king to Jane Seymour
Cromwell had Henry sign a document to change the treason charges.
May 2, Ann was arrested and sent to the Tower of London
Charges: incest, adultery and plot to murder the king
Catherine of Aragon
She was beloved by the King and the people of England
She was already at the court, during the reign of Catherine and Ann Boleyn
Cromwell told Henry about about Jane, he became very interested
Jane did not want the attention from the
24 hours after Ann's execution, Jane and Henry were already an item, and soon to be married May 30th they were married (Ann was executed on May 19th)
Jane did not know ............
Henry had a son, but was a bastard child from women Elizabeth Blount (mistress)
Henry Fitzoy died at age 17
Mixing portraiture and allegory, the painting anachronistically shows Henry VIII, his three children, and Queen Mary's husband, Philip of Spain, alongside figures from mythology. Henry sits on his throne in the centre, with his son Edward, the future Edward VI, kneeling beside him receiving the sword of justice. Henry died in 1547, but on the left of the picture his daughter Mary is shown next to Philip, whom she didn't marry until 1554 when she was queen, with Mars, god of war, behind them, symbolising the wars they fought. Elizabeth, by contrast, stands on the right of the picture holding the hand of Peace, who treads the sword of discord underfoot, as Plenty attends with her cornucopia. Painted in Elizabeth's reign c. 1572, the picture stresses her legitimate descent from the Tudor dynasty and her role as a bringer of peace and prosperity to the realm.
She died two weeks later
She was the only wife out of all six to be buried with King Henry
King Philip of Spain
Edward (Once King Edward VI)
Anne of Cleves
Henry remained single for two years after the death of his beloved Jane Seymour
Thomas Cromwell (again) began searching for the next queen
He wanted the King to marry someone with political power or gain
After splitting with Rome, England was isolated
Henry began searching for his next bride
Portrait of Princesses came in, but very few
Rumors have been spreading, about what he has done with his wives, not many ladies find that appealing
These arranged marriages, both parties never actually get to meet each other, only through painting, were they decide
Henry sent his advisers to personally go meet each candidate
Henry sent his famous painter Hans Holbein, to the Duke of Cleves, who had two sisters Amelia and Anne (Germany)
Seek allies with other country who embraces the protestant reformation, which made their alliance stronger over the Holy Roman Empire
With his next wife, Henry wants to set up a contract
He decided to marry Ann of Cleves
Henry was not impressed
her upbringing in German was more domestic skills and not music and literature, which was popular in Henry's court
did not find his bride at ALL attractive "Flanders Mare"
He became bored, dissolved their marriage
Anne had poise, and honor
The kind granted her an estate, and gave her the title "Kings Sister"
She lived away from court peacefully, but came court when ceremonies were happening with the children of Henry
Henry's eye moved again toooo.........
The Boleyn Family strikes again
Kathryn was Ann Boleyn's First Cousin
She came to court at age 19, her uncle encouraged the girl to catch Henry's attention
Uncle took advantage of this opportunity , after hearing the Ann of Cleves marriage to the king was dissolved
Thomas Cromwell (strikes again)
He talked to her uncle they set up the arrangement once Henry was free of Ann
Cromwell, thought this marriage would be good for Henry ....WHY???
He was 49 and she was only 19
she would keep him, young and fresh
July 18 1540 he married Kathryn
She did lifted Henry's spirits(zest back in his life)
Death of Jane
dissatisfaction of Anne of Cleves
Year into their marriage,
she was not with child
Henry was fine with that being that he already had a son
Rumors began of her infidelity began
some could blame her for wanted a man more her age, then some old king with the gross and smelly leg
She was did not help her self, by appointing one of her admirers has her personal secretory
1541, there was plenty of evidence, she was with her new secretory, Archbishop Cranmer informed the king of her misconduct
Henry did not believe what he was say, but he did have his people investigate the situation
There was enough testimony and evidence brought up against her about her infidelity before and during her marriage to the King
So she was arrested, and executed
She was buried right next to her cousin Ann Boleyn
Henry VIII and Six Wives
Thomas Parr (father) died in November 1517, leaving his three children, William, Katherine and Anne in the care of their mother.
Maud(mom) managed the children’s education impression on her daughter of the greater role an independent woman could have in society.
Katherine, life-long passion for learning.
She was fluent in French, Latin and Italian and began learning Spanish when she was Queen.
She was already married,
Katherine Parr’s first marriage was to Edward Borough,Edward died only a few years later,
She was a widow
Katherine’s second marriage was to John Neville, hewas 41 and she was 22. Latimer had two children from his previous marriages so Katherine also became a stepmother for the first time.
Katherine’s husband died in March 1543, leaving her a widow for the second time, now at the age of 31.
It was around this time that Katherine was noticed by not only the King, but also Thomas Seymour, brother of the late Queen Jane Seymour.
Katherine expressed her desire to marry Thomas Seymour after Latimer’s death,
but the King’s request for her hand was one that Katherine felt it was her duty to accept.
Katherine and Henry VIII were married on July 12th
Katherine was interested in the reformed faith, making her enemies with the conservatives of Henry’s court
It was Katherine’s influence with the King and the Henry’s failing health that led to a plot against her in 1546 by the conservative faction.
Katherine and her ladies were known to have had banned books which was grounds for arrest and execution on charges of heresy.
To gain evidence against the Queen, Anne Askew, a well-known and active Protestant, was questioned and tortured, but refused to recant her faith or give evidence against Katherine and her ladies.
However, there was enough other evidence against the Queen to issue a warrant for her arrest.
The warrant was accidentally dropped and someone loyal to the Queen saw it and then quickly told her about it
Katherine was close with all three children of Henry
They saw her as a true mother
Henry VIII died in January 1547 and Katherine became a guardian for the new nine-year-old king, Edward VI, but this was not to be. Only a few months after Henry’s death, Katherine secretly married Thomas Seymour, but the quickness and secret nature of the union caused a scandal. Katherine was still able to take guardianship of Princess Elizabeth
After three previous marriages and at the age of 36, Katherine was pregnant for the first time
she gave birth to a daughter named Mary. Katherine soon fell ill
Katherine was buried, with Lady Jane Grey as the chief mourner,
Catherine of Aragon was King Henry VIII's first wife. Her refusal to agree to an annulment of their marriage led to the creation of the Church of England.
Catherine of Aragon was the daughter of Spanish monarchs King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella
Engaged to Prince Arthur—heir to the English throne—since childhood, Catherine went to England and married him in 1501.
Arthur's died in 1502,
Catherine was betrothed(set) to Henry, Arthur's brother.
Need for a man to marry his brother's widow was granted by the Catholic Church,
clashes between England and Spain about the payment of Catherine's dowry (payment for Catherine ).
She finally wed Henry in 1509, after he had taken the throne to become Henry VIII.
Henry asked the Catholic Church to invalidate his marriage because Catherine had been married to his brother. However, Catherine refused to go along with Henry's plan
Her nephew was Charles V, the Holy Roman emperor, Pope Clement VII would not grant Henry's wishes.
Tired of waiting,require the pope's approval.
In 1533, Henry—who had already secretly married Anne Boleyn—had Thomas Cranmer, the archbishop of Canterbury, annul his marriage to Catherine.
Parliament then declared that the king, not the pope, was head of the Church of England. #WAITWHAT
Catherine was to renounce the title of Queen and refused to acknowledge it
Catherine and her daughter were separated and she was forced to leave court.
Died from depression and a broken heart
On January 7, 1536, Catherine died at Kimbolton Castle
Living in France during for a time during her youth, Anne returned to
England in 1522 and soon established a residence at King Henry VIII's court as maid to Catherine of Aragon,
Anne had become one of the most admired ladies of the court, attracting the attention of many men, among Henry Percy, the 6th earl of Northumberland.
Henry VIII caught wind of Lord Henry Percy desired marriage with Anne, however, he ordered against it.
Anne's sister, Mary Boleyn, one of the king's mistresses, had introduced her to Henry VIII, and that the king wrote love letters to Anne Boleyn
he wrote to Anne: "If you ... give yourself up, heart, body and soul to me ... I will take you for my only mistress, rejecting from thought and affection all others save yourself, to serve only you."
she aimed to be married, not a mistress: "Your wife I cannot be, both in respect of mine own unworthiness, and also because you have a queen already. Your mistress I will not be."
But Henry was desperate to have Anne, so he quickly configured a way to officially abandon his marriage with Catherine. In his petition for annulment to the pope,
Anne would conceive twice more, in 1534 and 1536, with each delivery producing a stillborn baby.)
Henry VIII eye began to wonder
the king pursued and engaged in sexual relationships with two of Anne's maids-of-honor, Madge Shelton and Jane Seymour. #QUEENPROBLEMS
Anne was enraged by Henry's mistresses relationships became increasingly jealous.
Henry blamed his adulterous behavior on his mission to have a son and heir to the throne
#BABYBOY #OBESSION #EXCUSES
On May 2, the Queen herself was arrested at Greenwich
charges against her: adultery, incest and plotting to murder the King.
taken to the Tower by barge along the same path she had traveled to prepare for her coronation just three years earlier.
She was lodged in the same rooms she had held on that occasion. #BURN #HeadWillRoll
Lady Jane Grey
Distance cousin of Henry VIII
Edward VI became king at the age of nine
'The Boy King'.
His uncle, Edward Seymour became Lord Protector
John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, who then took control as Edward's chief advisor. (Uncle on Tudors)
Edward demonstrated impressive piety and intelligence. But his potential would never be realized. He died an agonizing death at 15
tuberculosis and the measles.
Northumberland had persuaded him to leave the throne to his Protestant cousin, Lady Jane Grey. WHY?????
While Edward was still alive his ministers persuaded him to make a will naming Lady Jane Grey his successor to the throne. She was a Protestant unlike Edward's half sister Mary (Henry VIII's eldest daughter) who was Catholic. The ministers wanted to keep England a Protestant country.
Northumberland persuaded the king to declare Mary illegitimate, as well as Edward's other half-sister Elizabeth, and alter the line of succession to pass to Jane. #FAMILYSTICKS #TOGETHER
Four days later, Jane was proclaimed queen.
Mary Tudor had widespread popular support and by mid-July, eveyone had abandoned her to save themselfs by proclaiming Mary queen. Northumberland's supporters melted away and
Suffolk easily persuaded his daughter to relinquish the crown.
She was executed and MARY I took to the thrown
Mary immediately began repealing many of Henry VIII's religious edicts and replacing them with her own, which included a
strict heresy law.
The new law resulted in the burning of over 300 Protestants as heretics. Mary's religious persecutions made her extremely unpopular and earned her the nickname "Bloody Mary."
The throne would pass to her Protestant half-sister, Elizabeth.
She needed a Catholic heir to avoid the reversal of her Catholic reforms.
To accomplish this goal, she arranged to marry
Philip, King of Spain.
Philip spent little time in England and provided no part of his vast New World trade network to the British crown.
Meanwhile, the alliance with Spain dragged England into military conflict with France.
Mary fell ill in 1558, ovarian cancer.
Her half-sister succeeded her on the throne as Elizabeth I.
The Virgin Queen
Elizabeth I was the long-ruling queen of England, governing with relative stability and prosperity for 44 years. The Elizabethan era is named for her.
Reign of Henry's Children
Name all six of Henry VIII Wives?
Which two got Beheaded?
Who got Divorced?
(Think) Which wife do you think, caused the most issues (negative) during Henry VIII Reign over England?
(Think) Which story of the six wives is depressing? (explain)