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Transcript of Norwegian Immigration
Persecution Overpopulation Poverty Lack of land Unemployment Religious
Freedom More Land in
the West Jobs Bibliography General Information Ole Rynning and "A True Account" From 1825 to 1925 just over 800,000 Norwegians immigrated to the U.S. Major contributor to the flow of immigrants from Europe Second only to Ireland (% original country population) Background "A True Account" 28-year-old Norwegian man Son of a Lutheran Minister On April 17, 1837, Ole captained a group of men to America Arrived in NY and
sailed up to Beaver Creek In the winter of 1838 Ole wrote a book A True Account of America for the Information and Help of Peasant and Commoner Settlement Most Norwegians settled in the Midwest Particularly Wisconsin,
North Dakota and
Minnesota They created small settlements
of no more than 25,000 people. 75% of Norwegians lived in these
settlements Employment Farmers Grew wheat and corn Raised cattle and hogs Other Jobs: Construction
Assimilation Norwegians faced some hostility from Americans; they were referred to as "guests" John A. Johnson John Anderson Johnson (1832-1901) A successful Immigrant from Norway Wrote in "Billed-Magazine" He offered practical advice on immigration Concerning Immigration John's Advise: -Go west at least to Wisconsin -Best jobs are farming and craftsmanship -Norway vs. America A laborer will get nowhere A laborer can save money and own property "The day laborer in Norway can rarely get beyond the hand to mouth stage; over here [in America] he can put aside cash and be respected as highly as his employer because everyone knows that within a short time he himself may be hiring men. In Norway a laborer toils year after year and earns nothing for his sweat beyond the bare necessities for existence while here he can, within two or three years, become the owner of a huge farm large enough to support a family." (Page 70, U.S. Immigration and Migration) Quote from John A. Johnson The book opened the gateway to America for Norwegian immigrants Being light skinned from northern Europe reduced discrimination Living in Norwegian settlements isolated them from Americans: Pro: This reduced the opportunity for discrimination Con: This slowed their assimilation, especially their fluency of English. Letters from
early settlers encouraging other to immigrate Relations to Homeland Continued practicing Norwegian traditions Some stayed loyal to the Lutheran Church Continued to speak their native language Contributions
to the U.S. Helped to settle the Midwest Traditional Norwegian cuisine Elected Norwegian politicians Alexander, June Granatir. Daily Life in Immigrant America, 1870-1920. Westport: Greenwood, 2007. Print.American Memory Project. Library of Congres, n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/scandinavian.html>.Berquist, James M. Daily Life in Immigrant America, 1820-1870. Westport: Greenwood, 2008. Print.Countries and Their Cultures. Advameg, 2013. Web. 3 Mar. 2013. <http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Norwegian-Americans.html#b>.Energy of a Nation: Immigration Resources. Advocates for Human Rights, 2011. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://www.energyofanation.org/3f9c3958-cf6f-43ed-a9bf-05b8ad118870.html?nodeid=>.Immigrants; A Library of Congress Book. New York: HarperCollins, 1995. Print.Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930. President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/scandinavian.html>.Outman, James. "John A. Johnson." U.S. Imirgartion and Migration. Farmington Hills: Gale Group, 2004. 64-74. Print.The Promise of America. National Library, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://www.nb.no/emigrasjon/emigration/about.html>.Wepman, Dennis. Immigration: From the Founding of Virginia to the Closing of Ellis Island. New York City: Facts On File, 2002. Print. "Anders is going to America so he goes to the school teacher and asks for English lessons. 'But Anders,' says the teacher, 'you're leaving in just a couple of weeks. Anders: 'Yes, but I only want to learn the most important sentences such as Leave that lump of gold alone, I saw it first!'" March 4, 2013 VIII Phinney