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Principles of Pharmacology

N305, week 1
by

Paul Logan

on 18 August 2018

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Transcript of Principles of Pharmacology

Absorption
...how the drug gets into the body
Metabolism
...how the drug is transformed to the active or inactive component
Excretion
...how the drug and metabolite are eliminated from the body
Principles of Pharmacology
Pharmacokinetics
...what happens from the time the drug hits the body until it and the metabolites leave the body
Distribution
...how the drug and/or metabolite gets where it needs to be
Half-Life
Onset, Peak and Duration
...the time required for 1/2 of the drug to be removed from the body
Paul Logan, CRNP
Pharmacodynamics
Pharmacotherapeutics
...effects of therapy on the health of the patient
Acute Therapy
Maintenance Therapy
Supplemental Therapy
Palliative Therapy
Supportive Therapy
Prophylaxis and Empiric Therapy
Monitoring
Therapeutic Index
Drug Concentration
Patient's Condition
Tolerance and Dependence
Interactions
Adverse Drug Events
...the study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity
Five
Rights
of
Medication Administration
Right drug
Right dose
Right time
Right route
Right patient
Lifespan Considerations
Neonatal and Pediatric Populations
--Get your calculators out!!
Pregnancy
--now there are two patients!
Elderly
--many physiologic changes
Cultural Considerations
Beliefs about health and wellness
Use of alternative healers
Role of family
Biological variations
Regulatory Considerations
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Prescription vs. OTC
Regulated drug or herbal supplement
Scheduled drugs
How does a compound become a drug?
Controlled Substances
The Nurse's Legal Responsibilities
The nurse has several potential liabilities:
Failure to assess/evaluate
Failure to ensure safety
Medication errors
Ethical Considerations
There are ethical principles at play, including
Autonomy
Beneficence
Non-maleficence
Paternalism
Medication Errors
Contributing Factors:
Organizational issues
Educational system errors--it's OK to question things
Communication errors
Prevention is Key!
Patient Education
Use the nursing process!
Assess patient's current understanding and identify knowledge deficits
Find a nursing diagnosis (or just use "Knowledge Deficit" like the rest of us do)
Plan education at the patient's level
Implement the education program
Evaluate the patient's understanding
A Few More Concepts
...any reaction to a drug that is unexpected or undesirable and occurs at therapeutic dosages
Known side effects
Allergic (or hypersensitivity) reactions
Idiosyncratic reactions--occurring unexpectedly and not an allergy or expected side effect
Teratogenicity
Mutagenicity
Carcinogenicity
Aminophylline
Caffeine
Other Half-Lives
Elimination half-life
Plasma half-life
Therapeutic half-life
Full transcript