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Alexander the Great: WH2.4
Transcript of Alexander the Great: WH2.4
Greeks viewed their northern neighbors, the Macedonians, as barbarians because they were rural people who did not live in city-states.
By the end of the fifth century, Macedonia was a powerful kingdom.
359 B.C., Philip II became king of Macedonia.
He admired Greek culture and wanted to unite all of Greece under Macedonian rule.
The Macedonian army crushed an army of Greek city-states at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C.
He insisted that the conquered Greek city-states form a league under his control and help him conquer Persia.
Before he could fulfill his goal, he was assassinated.
Alexander the Great, Philip’s son, became king of Macedonia when only 20.
educated by Aristotle.
envisioned a world in which mixed cultures would live together.
His father had taught him military tactics and leadership.
Alexander moved immediately to fulfill his father’s dream of conquering Persia.
Alexander wanted glory, empire, and revenge for the Persian burning of Athens in 480 B.C.
Alexander entered Asia Minor in 334 B.C. with an army of thirty-seven thousand
By 331 B.C., Alexander had conquered the Persian Empire and established the city of Alexandria in Egypt.
Alexander was not content.
By 327 B.C. he had moved through present-day Pakistan into northern India.
Weary from many hard battles, his soldiers refused to continue on and Alexander agreed to return home.
In 323 B.C., he died in Babylon, exhausted from wounds, fever, and alcohol.
Alexander’s military success was due to his courage and a mastery of military tactics.
He modeled himself on Achilles, the Greek hero of the Trojan War.
His example inspired his men to follow him.
Alexander created a new age, called the Hellenistic Era.
The word Hellenistic means “to imitate Greeks.”
This era saw the expansion of the Greek language and ideas to the non-Greek world of Southwest Asia and beyond.
Higher Level Question: Alexander and his father admired ancient Greek culture greatly. What do you think is admirable about it? What is not?
Hellenistic Culture: considerable cultural achievement, especially in science and philosophy.
The most important cultural center was Alexandria, home to scholars of all kinds—philosophers, scientists, and writers.
library was the largest of its kind, with over five hundred thousand scrolls.
Hellenistic sculptors added realism and emotion to the classical period’s technical skill.
Important advances in mathematics and astronomy were made
Aristarchus developed the theory that the sun is the center of the universe and that the earth rotates around the sun.
Eratosthenes determined that Earth is round and nearly calculated the correct circumference of the Earth.
Euclid wrote a textbook on plane geometry, the Elements, that was used up to modern times.
Archimedes established the value of pi and did important work in the geometry of spheres and cylinders.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
Alexander played a key role in uniting various cultures, as well as exposing western culture to the middle east and Asia.
Objective: Describe the rise and significance of Alexander the Great. Also, define Hellenism and explain its importance.