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Perfectionism

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by

Kenneth Huang

on 21 November 2011

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Transcript of Perfectionism

Brainstorm
Depression
Problems with Maladaptive Perfectionism
Perfectionism
anxiety
adaptive
task orientation
gamer mind
maladaptive
ego orientation
victim mind
used to describe somebody who organizes everything well or does things flawlessly
Is perfectionism good or bad?
In sports, some require perfect performance
Clinical and non clincal situations
“the tendency to form unrealistic expectations and engage in overly critical evaluations of the self and of others”
negative perfectionism is more common in sport psychological and clinical research
negative perfectionism is problematic in a sports setting and is also more common than positive
focus on negative perfectionism and how we can deal with it, both as athletes and coaches
heightened anxiety
depression
eating disorders
excessive exercise/burnout
a focus on high standards accompanied by an excessive concern over mistakes and evaluations by others
two main attributes
of maladaptive perfectionism
fear of failure
excessive concern over mistakes
anxiety
low confidence
failure orientation
negative reactions to mistakes during competition
detrimental to sport performance
negative reactions to imperfection were associated with higher cognitive and somatic anxiety
striving for perfection
isn’t maladaptive,
as long as negative
reactions are controlled
Perfectionistic athletes who experience failure are more vulnerable to depression than those who experience success
Athletes who adapt a maladaptive perfectionism orientation have been shown to have low levels of self-esteem
associated with eating disorders among athletes
Self-presentational perfectionists are highly concerned with presenting an image of perfection to other people
health issues
athletes and non-athletes concerned with what others think of them may attempt to engage in excessive compulsive exercise
can ultimately lead to other behaviours
Eating Disorders
Excessive Exercise
References

McCown, William G.; Carlson, Glen. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 22. 4 (2004):329-340

Kutlesa, N; Arthur, N. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 26. 3 (Sept 2008): 134-150

Shafran, R., & Mansell, W. (2001). Perfectionism and Psychopathology: A Review of Research and Treatment. Clinical Psychology Review , 879-906.

Melrose, S. (2011). Perfectionism and Depression: Vulnerabilities Nurses Need to Understand. Nursing Research and Practice.

Slaney R, Rice K, Mobley M, Trippi J, Ashby JS. The revised almost perfect scale.Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. 2001;34(3):130–145.

Hewitt P, Flett G. Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.1991;60(3):456–470.

Frost R, Marten P, Lahart C, Rosenblate R. The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1990;14(5):449–468.

Anshel, M. H., & Sutarso, T. (2010). Conceptualizing Maladaptive Sport Perfectionism as a Function of Gender. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology , 263-281.

Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2005). The Perils of Perfectionism in Sports and Exercise. Current Directions in Psychological Science , 14-18.

Gotwals, J., Dunn, J., & Wayment, H. (2003). An Examination of Perfectionism and Self-Esteem in Intercollegiate Athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26.

Stoeber, J., Otto, K., Pescheck, E., Becker, C., & Stoll, O. (2007). Perfectionism and competitive anxiety in athletes: Differentiating striving for perfection and negative reactions to imperfection. Personality and Individual Differences, 42 (6), 959-969.

Hopkinson, R. A., & Lock, J. (2004). Athletics, perfectionism, and disordered eating. Eating and Weight Disorders, 9 (2), 99-106.
until 2004, only one study on treatment
cognitive behavioural therapy
Burns Perfectionism Scale
self-criticism
difficulty dealing with feedback
procrastination
excessively high personal standards
treatment was successful
for 8/9 patients
but
great
variability
in
success
Treatments
identifies problem areas and perfectionism triggers
helps develop a plan for change
costs and benefits of losing perfectionist standards
changing their thoughts by using thought records and diary
thoughts examined
relearn how to adjust their standards
graded exposure
baby steps to reformatting self
ie. leaving house with sox on the floor
depression
anxiety
perfectionism scores
group treatment based on cognitive-behavioural and interpersonal approaches
did not attempt to remove perfectionism
modify debilitating effects
realize potentially enhancing effects
negative
positive
treatment is a process
instill deeper sense of satisfaction with their work
encouraging realistic goal setting
increase flexibility with standards of self and others
examine underlying motivation for personal, academic or career pursuits
group environment can be effective treatment method for addressing both intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of perfectionism
depression
anxiety
Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS)
35 items - 5 point system - 6 subscales
Hewitt and Flett Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (HFMPS)
45 items - 7 point scale - 3 subscales
Almost Perfect Scale - Revised (APS-R)
23 items - 7 point scale - 3 subscales
I often feel frustrated because I can’t meet my goals
long term and intensive
these strageties can be used
psychological instruments that can be used
Concern over Mistakes
Personal Standards
Organization
Parental Expectations
Parental Criticism
Doubt about Actions
If I fail at work/school, I am a failure as a person
If I do not set the highest standards for myself, I am likely to end up as a second-rate person
I am a neat person
My parents wanted me to be the best at everything
As a child, I was punished for doing things less than perfect
Even when I do something very carefully, I often feel that it is not quite right
Self-Oriented
Other-Oriented
Socially Prescribed
It makes me uneasy to see an error in my work
I have high expectations for the people who are important to me
The better I do, the better I am expected to do
High Standards
I have high standards for my performance at work or at school
Order
I am an orderly person
Discrepancy
Striving for excellence motivates you; striving for perfection is demoralizing
(Harriet Braiker)
self help books
acceptance of excellence but not perfect
acknowledge effort of others more than results
self oriented
other oriented
Presented by

Anthony Gebrehiwot, Kenneth Huang, Milad Bazaz, Naomi Maeda and Nikolai Thebaud
new measures are needed because existing measures do not reflect original construct of perfectionism
perfectionism impedes successful treatment of depression
lack of specific theoretical models of perfectionism that could guide treatment
HOWEVER
Top Ten Signs Your a Perfectionist

You can not stop thinking about a mistake you made.
You are intensely competitive and can't stand doing worse than others.
You either want to do something “just right” or not at all.
You demand perfection from other people.
You will not ask for help if asking can be perceived as a flaw or weakness.
You will persist at a task long after other people have quit.
You are a fault-finder who must correct other people when they are wrong.
You are highly aware of other people's demands and expectations.
You are very self-conscious about making mistakes in front of other people.
You noticed the error in the title of this list
seizon senryaku shimashou ka?
imagery
self talk
relaxation
goal setting
Full transcript