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Copy of Early 20th century Acting

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Ne'er Less Jeypkins Gonzales

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Transcript of Copy of Early 20th century Acting

Actors and Acting Method
Early 20th Century Theater
Russian Actors
German Actors
French Actors
English Actors
American Actors
http://russianfilm.blogspot.com/2012/09/tamara-makarova-russian-greta-garbo.html
http://www.cozy-corner.com/cinema_russo_sovietico/english/russian_cine_Marina_Neyolova.htm
http://russia-ic.com/culture_art/theatre/171#.UVQHBReR-So
http://www.idc.nl/?id=543
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_of_Germany
http://www.siue.edu/COSTUMES/actors/pics.html
http://www.acting-school-stop.com/stella-adler.html
References:
She made her debut at  Constantin Stanislavsky's Society of Art and Literature.
Known for originating the role of Nina Zarechnaya in Anton Chekov’s “The Seagull” at the Alexandrinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg in 1896.
In 1904, Komissarzhevskaya founded her own theatre in Saint Petersburg, where she appeared in productions of Chekhov's Ivanov and Uncle Vanya —and as Desdemona in William Shakespeare's Othello, Ophelia in Hamlet, and Nora in Ibsen's A Doll's House.
She worked with  Vsevolod Meyerhold and managed to develop Meyerhold's symbolist aesthetic. Komissarzhevskaya herself starred in two of the most critically and commercially successful productions:  Ibsen's “Hedda Gabler” and Maeterlink's “Sister Beatrice.”
Vera Komissarzhevskaya
November 8, 1864 – February 23, 1910
She appeared in 31 films between 1927 and 1984.
Makarova gained fame all throughout the Soviet Union with Gerasimov's film "Semero smelyh" ("The Seven Brave") released in 1936.
Her filmography includes: the role of Sofya Andreyevna in "Lev Tolstoy", Peter`s mother in "Yunost Petra", Aleksandra Vasilyeva Petrushkova in "Lyubit cheloveka", Dr. Tatyana Kazakhova in "Selskiy vrach", Oleg`s Mother in "The Young Guard", Elena Alexeievna in "Dochki-materi" and others.
Tamara Makarova
August 13, 1907 – January 18, 1997
Russian film and theater actress.
She has appeared in 37 films since 1969.
Her role of a bad tempered princess in "Old, old fairy-tale" by H. Andersen's story at once brought her popularity.
Marina Neyolova
April 1, 1947
Solntseva is a film director and actress who starred in the silent sci-fi classic Aelita (1924).
She directed 14 films between 1939 and 1979.
 Married to director Aleksandr Dovzhenko and collaborated with him on his later films, including Michurin (1949), for which she was awarded a Stalin Prize.
Yuliya Solntseva
August 7, 1901 – October 28, 1989
From 1910 he was a member of the Burgtheater ensemble in  Vienna.
On March 13, 1931, he was made an Honorary Citizen of  Vienna.
Ernst Arndt
February 3, 1861 – September 1942
A German actor, film director and screenwriter. He appeared in more than 230 films between 1929 and 1978, and directed 21 films between 1936 and 1960.
He attended the Royal Goethe Gymnasium – the predecessor of the Goethe School – in Hanover. His theatrical talent was discovered during rehearsals for a school performance at the Schauburg boulevard theatre.
 he performed at theatres at Hanover, Halberstadt, Münster and  Frankfurt; in plays like The Importance of Being Earnest  he very quickly earned a reputation as a superb character comedian, distinguished by his characteristic nasal speech. 
This distinction followed him when he began appearing in films in 1929, often together with the mumbling Viennese actor Hans Moser, since together they made a contrasting pair. In 1929 he was invited by Bertolt Brecht to the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm in Berlin, where he performed as Macheath in The Threepenny Opera. He starred in drama films likeM and The Testament of Dr. Mabuse directed by Fritz Lang.
After the war he became a naturalised Austrian citizen, and from 1948 worked as a character actor at the Vienna Burgtheater and appeared frequently onstage in Germany, most notably in Carl Sternheim satires directed by Rudolf Noelte. Foremeost however he pursued his film career, performing in numerous comedies of varied quality, in his later days of the 1970s also on television.
Theo Lingen
June 10, 1903 – November 10, 1978
A German film actor. He appeared in 136 films between 1937 and 1965.
He made his stage debut in Hamburg in 1932, after which he worked in Augsburg, Kiel, Leipzig, Berlin, Munich and Düsseldorf. Many actors and performing artists fled Nazi Germany, but Nielsen remained. He made his film debut in 1937 in Daphne und der Diplomat, followed by German movies, such as Heimat (with Zarah Leander), Friedrich Schiller – Triumph eines Genies (with Horst Caspar) and Der große König (with Otto Gebühr).
Hans Nielsen
November 30, 1911 – August 17, 1965
She appeared in 34 films between 1950 and 1977.
 Leuwerik is probably best known for her portrayal of Maria von Trapp in the films The Trapp Family and The Trapp Family in America.
Ruth Leuwerik
April 13, 1924
Began his career in Rouche’s Theatre des Arts and acted minor roles.
Jouvet's first important association was with Jacques Copeau's Théâtre du Vieux-Colombier, beginning in 1913.
 Copeau's training included a varied and demanding schedule, regular exercise for agility and stamina, and pressing his cast and crew to invent theatrical effects in a bare-bones space. It was there Jouvet developed his considerable stagecraft skills, particularly makeup and lighting (he developed a kind of accent light named the jouvet). 
1931: original production of Judith, written by Jean Giraudoux, at the Théâtre Pigalle
1935: original production of The Trojan War Will Not Take Place, written by Jean Giraudoux, starring Jouvet as Homer, also starring Madeleine Ozeray, at the Athénée in Paris
1947: directed the première of Jean Genet's The Maids at the Athénée in Paris on 17 April.
1951: directed the première of Jean-Paul Sartre's The Devil and the Good Lord at the Théâtre-Antoine in Paris on 7 June.
Louis Jouvet 
24 December 1887 - 16 August 1951
Dullin was a student of Jacques Copeau. He was also a major theater teacher, who trained a whole generation of French actors.
Dullin preached and practiced respect for the text, a simplified stage décor and favored a poetic rather than a spectacular perspective on the mise-en-scène, placing the actor at the center of the theatrical endeavor. Dullin also played many roles on the screen, especially when he needed money to continue to support his theater. He was one of the major French actors both on the stage and the screen during the 1930s
Charles Dullin
8 May 1885 – 11 December 1949
Referred to as "the most famous actress the world has ever known.“
Bernhardt made her fame on the stages of France in the 1870s, and was soon in demand in Europe and the Americas. She developed a reputation as a serious dramatic actress, earning the nickname "The Divine Sarah."
Sarah Bernhardt
23 October 1844 – 26 March 1923
Bourchier was noted for roles both in classical drama, particularly Shakespeare, and in contemporary plays, including works by W. S. Gilbert, Anthony Hope, Arthur Wing Pinero and Alfred Sutro. He managed several West End theatres during his career, including the Royalty, the Criterion, the Garrick (for a total of eight years),His Majesty's and the Strand.
Arthur Bourchier
22 June 1863 – 14 September 1927
An English actor, comedian and singer best known for creating comic roles in a series of extremely successful Edwardian musical comedies. He was often paired with the comic actor George Grossmith, Jr.
After about a decade touring and in stock productions, Payne joined the company at the Gaiety Theatre in London, gaining notice for creating a comic character in the musical In Town (1892). He spent more than two decades at the Gaiety, using his diminutive stature, malleable features, distinctive lisp and comic dance ability to his advantage. His further successes in the 1990s included lovable comic roles in such long-running shows as The Shop Girl (1894), The Circus Girl (1896) and A Runaway Girl (1898). In the new century, he created memorable characters in such hits as The Messenger Boy (1900), The Toreador (1902), The Orchid (1903), The Spring Chicken (1905), The Girls of Gottenberg (1907), Our Miss Gibbs (1909) and The Sunshine Girl (1912).
Edmund Payne
14 December 1863 – 15 July 1914
He is an important innovator in bringing "cabaret" and "revues" to the London stage. Born in London, he took his first role on the musical stage at the age of 18 in Haste to the Wedding (1892), a West End collaboration between his famous songwriter and actor father and W.S. Gilbert.
Grossmith soon became an audience favourite playing "dude" roles.
George Grossmith, Jr. 
11 May 1874 – 6 June 1935
Reeve began to perform in pantomime and music hall as a child. She gained fame in Edwardian musical comedies in the 1890s.
She made her first appearance on the stage at the age of four in the pantomime Red Riding Hood on Boxing Day 1878 at the Mile End Pavilion Theatre in London's Whitechapel and continued to play in pantomimes. As a young child, she toured for several years with the Frederick Wright Dramatic Company, performing with the young Huntley Wright and his family. Her first role with them was "Little Willie" in East Lynne.
 Reeve played in variety in England and enjoyed extensive and lucrative foreign tours, including South Africa and the U.S. in 1911, South Africa in 1913, Australia in 1914, Australia and South Africa in 1917–1918 (including a return engagement at the Tivoli in Melbourne in You're in Love), South Africa in 1920, Australia and New Zealand from 1922 to 1924 (again often in Aladdin with the Williamson company), and in 1926 and 1929, the last time playing in vaudeville. 
Ada Reeve
3 March 1874 – 5 October 1966
He was one of the few entertainers whose career successfully spanned vaudeville, film, radio, and television. His arched eyebrow and cigar smoke punctuation became familiar trademarks for over three quarters of a century. Beginning at the age of 79, Burns' career was resurrected as an amiable, beloved and unusually active old comedian, in the film "The Sunshine Boys" for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor, in 1975. He continued to work until shortly before his death, in 1996, at the age of 100.
George Burns
January 20, 1896 – March 9, 1996
Ethel Barrymore was a highly regarded stage actress in New York City and a major Broadway performer
Her first appearance in Broadway was in 1895, in a play called The Imprudent Young Couple which starred her uncle John Drew, Jr. and Maude Adams
In 1897 Ethel went with William Gillette to London to play Miss Kittridge in Gillette's Secret Service. . She appeared with Drew and Adams again in 1896 in Rosemary.
She was about to return to the States with Gillette's troupe when Henry Irving and Ellen Terry offered her the role of Annette in The Bells. A full London tour was on and, before it was over, Ethel created, on New Years Day 1898, Euphrosine in Peter the Great at the Lyceum, the play having been written by Irving's son, Laurence. Men everywhere were smitten with Ethel, most notably young Winston Churchill, who asked her to marry him. Not wishing to be a politician's wife, she refused. 
Ethel Barrymore
August 15, 1879 – June 18, 1959
An American stage actor noted for his roles in Shakespearean comedy, society drama, and light comedies.
Drew was associated originally with the company of Augustin Daly in the 1880s, a man known for managing and training with grim efficiency. Under Daly’s management, John Drew developed his reputation for versatility, appearing in many varieties of plays, but especially in contemporary works that are rarely performed or remembered today. His frequent leading lady with Daly was the legendary Ada Rehan. His memoirs, titled My Years on the Stage, were published in 1922.
John Drew Jr.
November 13, 1853–July 9, 1927
An American actress and an acclaimed acting teacher, who founded the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in New York City (1949) and the The Stella Adler Academy of Acting in Los Angeles.
She began her acting career at the age of four in the play Broken Hearts at the Grand Street Theatre on the Lower East Side, as a part of her parents' Independent Yiddish Art Company.
She made her English-language debut on Broadway in 1922, as the Butterfly in the play The World We Live In, and also spent a season in the vaudeville circuit. In 1922–1923, the renowned Russian actor-director Constantin Stanislavski made his only US tour with his Moscow Art Theatre. Adler and many others saw these performances; this had a powerful and lasting impact on her career, as well as the 20th century American theatre.
 She joined the American Laboratory Theatre in 1925; there she was introduced to Stanislavski's theories, from founders and Russian actor-teachers and former members of theMoscow Art Theater – Richard Boleslavsky and Maria Ouspenskaya. In 1931 she joined the Group Theatre, New York, founded by Harold Clurman, Lee Strasberg and Cheryl Crawford, through theater director and critic, Clurman, whom she later married in 1943. With Group theatre she worked in plays like Success Story by John Howard Lawson, two Clifford Odets plays, Awake and Sing! and Paradise Lost, and directed the touring company of Odets's Golden Boy and More to Give to People. Members of Group Theatre were leading interpreters of the Method acting technique based on the work and writings of Stanislavski.
Stella Adler
February 10, 1901 – December 21, 1992
Adler's technique, based on a balanced and pragmatic combination of imagination as well as memory, is hugely credited with introducing the subtle and insightful details and a deep physical embodiment of a character.
Here are the main points of this approach to acting:
Acting is Doing The actor must always do something on stage. He looks for actions in the script (for example, "to teach, to confess, to beg", etc.) and finds the human conflict in them. He must have a justification for each action (know exactly why he is performing each action).
Developing the imagination An actor develops his imagination by first observing the world around him in very specific details. He can then create specific images in his mind in order to surround himself with things that are true to him on stage. If he succeeds, the audience will see through his eyes.
Training the mind Actors must have a real understanding of the play in order to reveal its secrets to the audience. They must study the text and its ideas but also research the social situations of the play.
Size Actors need strong bodies and voices for the stage so they can bring size to their actions. Adler encouraged actors never to be small. Her students learned to always bring a bigger meaning to the text. Below is a short video where she discusses this "sense of epic" the actor must have.
Stella Adler’s Acting Technique


Stella Adler Acting Exercises
Imagination Exercise Pick an object and describe it. The goal is to get very specific (shades of colors, texture, etc.) but to communicate what the object looks like in a direct simple way that speaks to your audience. The more you do this exercise, the more objects will speakto you and the quicker your imagination will kick in onstage. Then take the exercise to the next level by letting your imagination run free (Adler calls that "traveling"). For example, a green couch can remind you of emerald earrings a woman wore at a party you went to which reminds you of the music that was playing and so on and so on.
Paraphrasing Pick a book and write down one idea from the book in your own words, then present it onstage to others. Try to experience the idea so you can give it a live dimension on stage. To do that, you first need to understand the idea, then respond to it and make it your own until you feel a real need to communicate it.
Inner justification Randomly pick a simple line from a play you don't know and bring it to life by imagining in details the reason why you're saying that line. Try to make a strong choice, something that stirs you and creates conflict. This exercise helps actors experiencetheir lines instead of just saying them.
Stella Adler’s Acting Technique
In 1922, Carnovsky began his long career on Broadway with his New York stage debut as Reb Aaron in The God of Vengeance. Two years later, Carnovsky joined the Theatre Guild acting company and appeared in the title role of Uncle Vanya (by Anton Chekhov). This was followed by roles in Saint Joan (by George Bernard Shaw), The Brothers Karamazov, The Doctor's Dilemma (also by Shaw) and the role of Kublai Khan in Eugene O'Neill's Marco Millions.
In 1931, he helped found the Group Theatre, which specialized in dramas with socially relevant and politically tinged messages. Many of the Group's members were inspired by the Moscow Art theatre and several members, including Carnovsky, also joined the American Communist Party. Among the notable Group Theatre directors were Harold Clurman, Lee Strasberg, Elia Kazan and Cheryl Crawford. It included such actors as Franchot Tone, John Garfield, Ruth Nelson, Art Smith, Luther Adler, Sanford Meisner, Paula Strasberg and Carnovsky's wife, Phoebe Brand. Carnovsky summered at Pine Brook Country Club in Nichols, Connecticut, with the Group Theatre.
Morris Carnovsky
September 5, 1897 – September 1, 1992
was a Greek-American director, producer, writer and actor, described by The New York Times as "one of the most honored and influential directors in Broadway and Hollywood history.“
After studying acting at Yale, he acted professionally for eight years, later joining the Group Theater in 1932, and co-founded the Actors Studio in 1947. With Lee Strasberg, he introduced Method acting to the American stage and cinema as a new form of self-expression and psychological "realism." Kazan acted in only a few films, including City for Conquest (1940).
Kazan introduced a new generation of unknown young actors to the movie audiences, including Marlon Brando and James Dean. Noted for drawing out the best dramatic performances from his actors, he directed 21 actors to Oscar nominations, resulting in nine wins. He became "one of the consummate filmmakers of the 20th century" after directing a string of successful films, including, A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), On the Waterfront (1954), and East of Eden (1955). During his career, he won two Oscars as Best Director and received an Honorary Oscar, won three Tony Awards, and four Golden Globes. 
Elia Kazan
September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003
Actors Studio
In 1947, he founded the Actors Studio, a non-profit workshop, with actors Robert Lewis and Cheryl Crawford. It soon became famous for promoting "Method," a style of theater and acting involving "total immersion of actor into character," writes film author Ian Freer.
METHOD ACTING PROCEDURES :
Relaxation
Sense Memory
Concentration
Magic If
Objects
Substitution
Animal Exercise
Song & Dance
Private Moment
Speaking Out
Moment-to-Moment
Justification
Affective Memory
Given Circumstances
Strasberg
Elia Kazan
Notable
20th
OF THE twentieth CENTURY
Directors / directing styles
Vsevolod Emilevich Meyerhold

Biomechanics
His performers were trained in gymnastics, circus movement, an ballet in order to make them as efficient as machines in carrying out “ an assignment received from the outside.”

He sought to replace Stanislavky’s emphasis on internal motivation with one on physical and emotional reflexes.

To create a feeling of exuberant joy in both performer and audience, He thought it more efficient for actors to plummet down a slide, swing on a trapeze, or turn a somersault than to restrict themselves to behavior considered appropriate by traditional social standards.
RUSSIA
Source: http://max.mmlc.northwestern.edu/~mdenner/Drama/directors/tairov.html
Alexander Tairov

Unlike most producers of the period, who clothed actors in uniform-like garments similar to those worn by the spectators, Tairov sought to lift audiences above the drabness of everyday life.

Produced plays like: Wilde’s Salome, Scribe’s Adrienne Lecouvreur and Racine’s Phedre.

Tairov believed in emphasizing theater’s theatrical elements, but unlike his more famous colleague, Tairov did not wish to break down barriers between stage and audience. Instead, his productions were meant to be theatrical spectacles, appreciated by a well-prepared audience. Tairov was fortunate to have his wife. Alisa Koonen, as collaborator and lead actress in practically all his productions.
RUSSIA
Source: http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/cinema-and-theater/evgeny-vakhtangov/
Yevgeny Vakhtangov

Is a faithful follower of Stanislavky, but his strength came from his effective blending of Moscow Art Theatre’s realistic approach with Meyerhold’s theatricalism.

From Stanislavky he preserved the emphasis upon concentration, each character’s biography, and exploration of hidden meanings; to this he added a heightened and stylized use of movement and design not unlike that of German expressionists.

His greatest achievement came with Turandot, throughout which the actors seemed to be improvising effortlessly.
RUSSIA
Source: http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/cinema-and-theater/mikhail-chekhov/
Mikhail Chekov

Nephew of Anton Chekov

Thought that Stanislavky’s system restricted the actor copying nature instead of emphasizing what might be. Thus, he came to stress inspiration above analysis as the actor’s primary tool.
RUSSIA
Source: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=65476739
Nikolai Ohklopkov

Worked with Meyerhold and Tairov, and was appointed to be the director of Moscow Art Theatre’s Fourth Studio in 1932.

He eliminated the platform stage and placed all action in the auditorium. Although he often used a central playing area, he also staged scenes around the periphery of the auditorium or on a bridge overhead. Realistic set pieces might be placed almost anywhere, and sound effects from many directions made the audience feel at the center of events.

All of his productions were “cinematic” in their rapid cutting from one scene to another.
RUSSIA
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erwin_Piscator
Erwin Piscator

First major practitioner of “Epic Theatre”

Was appointed as the director at Berlin Volksbuhne, where between 1924 and 1927 he sought to create a “proletarian drama; as opposed to merely producing standard plays for a working-class audience.

Piscator used film sequences, cartoons, treadmills, segmented settings, and other devices to draw strong parallels between the dramatic events and recent European history, thus arguing the need for social and political reforms.
GERMANY
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertolt_Brecht
Bertolt Brecht

Associated primarily with Epic Theatre. He called his approach “epic” in order to indicate its broad sweep and its mixture of narrative and dramatic techniques. He wished to assign audiences an active role in the theatre by making them watch critically rather than passively.

Created the “alienation” concept (vefremdungseffeckt).

He wanted theatrical means (lighting, musicians, scene changes) to be visible as possible. He deliberately separated episodes by inserting songs, captions or narratives between them.

He hoped to lead the audience to relate what they saw on stage to socioeconomic condition outside the theatre.
GERMANY
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonin_Artaud
ANTONIN ARTAUD

The most important avant-garde figures between wars and originally a surrealist.

According to Artaud, the theatre in Western world has been devoted to a very narrow range of human experience, primarily the psychological problems of individuals or the social problems of groups. But to Artaud, the more important aspects of existence are those submerged in the unconscious, those things that cause divisions within people and between people and lead to hatred, violence, and disaster.
FRANCE
ANTONIN ARTAUD

Artaud sometimes referred to his as a “theatre of cruelty”, since in order to achieve its ends it sought to force the audience to confront itself. Thus, his cruelty he advocated is not primarily physical but moral or psychological.

His intentions to operate directly on the nervous system led him to suggest many innovations: substitution of new myths for outworn dramatic “masterpieces”, replacement of the traditional theatre building with remodeled barns, factories, or airplane hangars. He wished to place the audience in the center of the action by locating acting areas in the corners, on overhead catwalks, and along the walls.

In lighting, he called for a “vibrating, shredded” effect, and in sound he favored shrillness, abrupt changes in volume, and the use of the human vocie to create harmonies and dissonances.

Thus, Artaud wanted to assault the audience, to break down its resistance, to purge it morally and spiritually, and he sought to do this through devices “addressed first of all to the senses rather than to the mind,” for “the public thinks first of all with its sense.”
Source: http://jacquescopeau.com/?page_id=118
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Jouvet
LOUIS JOUVET

Puts primary emphasis o the text. Above all, he respected language and its nuances. He demanded lucid analysis and careful attention to detail from his actors.

CHARLES DULLIN

Was extremely eclectic, presenting works ranging
from the Greeks to the present and from tragedy
to farce. His aim was to capture the “inner
poetry” through honesty and unity.

He refuses to do any play that he thought
depended upon machinery or upon director’s tricks.
FRANCE
Source: http://www.peoples.ru/art/cinema/actor/georges_pitoeff/
Source: http://www.chapitre.com/CHAPITRE/fr/p/gaston-baty,80924.aspx
GEORGES PITOEFF

As a director, he placed primary emphasis upon text. For him, the most powerful element was perhaps rhythm, which he sought to find and project for each character and scene.

GASTON BATY

For him, the director was the major theatrical artist. In his productions, a mysterious and poetic world, created by the skillful manipulation of mood, seemed to lurk behind a realistic surface. His emphasis on costumes, scenery, properties, music, and lighting was sometimes criticized, but he was also known as the “magician of the mise-en-scene.” (put in scene)
FRANCE
Source: http://www.los-poetas.com/poetas/bionovo.htm
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xavier_Villaurrutia
20th
Two directors with financial support from the heiress and playwright, Antonieta Rivas Mercado:

1. XAVIER VILLAURRUTIA (1903-1950)

2. SALVADOR NOVO (1904-1974)






1940’s major figure in directing:

SEKI SANTO (1905-1966)

- Founded the Teatro de la Reforma (1948) which is dedicated to “theatre of the people for the people.”
LATIN AMERICA
prepared by jeypkins gonzáles
Full transcript