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Chemistry - chp 2 Matter and Change

Chapter 2 Matter and Change. By Dr. Schumacher - Text Chemistry by Wilbraham - (Properties of matter; changes; classifying substances)
by

Jeanne Schumacher

on 11 November 2015

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Transcript of Chemistry - chp 2 Matter and Change

2.1 Properties to describe matter
extensive properties depend on the amount of matter
- mass -
- volume -
intensive properties depend on the type of matter
- density
- boiling point
- color
Physical Properties of Matter
the condition observed/measured
Ex hardness, color, conductivity,
malleability
Ductile
Physical States of Matter
solid
liquid
gas
Matter and Change
Physical Changes:
properties change-
not the materials
reversible/irreversible
Ex. boil, freeze, melt,
cut, grind
Solid:
definite shape and volume
tightly packed particles
incompressible
expand slightly when heated
Liquid:
indefinite shape
fixed volume
close contact of particles
not orderly
Gas:
indefinite shape
indefinte volume
particles are far apart
easily compressed
a measure of the amount of matter that an object contains
a measure of the space occupied by a sample of matter
2.2 Mixtures


heterogeneous mixture - composition is not uniform throughout
homogeneous mixture - composition is uniform throughout


Also called Solution - solutes dissolved in solvent

phase = any part of a sample with uniform
composition and properties
Separating Mixtures

Filtration
Distillation
chromatography
2.3 Distinguishing Elements & Compounds

element - simplest form of matter
- has a unique set of properties
- can not be broken down
compound - contains 2 or more elements
chemically combined (fixed proportion)
- can be broken down
by chemical means
properties are different from component elements
chemical change -
produces matter with a different composition
than the original matter.
Distinguishing Substances and Mixtures
substance - composition of a material is fixed
mixture - composition of a material may vary
Symbols and Formulas

symbols to represent elements
- 2nd letter always small
chemical formulas to represent comounds.
- Subscripts indicate relative
proportions of the elements
2.4 chemical reaction

reactant - substance present at the start of the reaction
product - substance produced in the reaction
Recognizing Chemical Changes

transfer of energy,
change in color,
production of a gas
(careful here)
formation of a precipitate -
Conservation of Mass

in a chemical reaction, the mass of the products is always equal to the mass of the reactants

Mass is neither created nor destroyed.

Figure 2.15 When the liquids in photograph (a) are mixed, they react. None of the products are gases.

How do you know that a reaction took place and that mass was conserved during the reaction?

Review PPT on
Temp Scales
Complete Chem Reactions - page 56
Chemistry Activity -
Classifying Matter pg 38
Demo- Chemical
Changes
Demo
Chemical
Reactions
Complete Activity
Create Classification
System
On-line Textbooks - chp 2 Concepts in Actions - - Watch cooking Up Chemical and Physical Change - then complete (MOODLE) HW assessment on Physical vs Chemical Change
Chemical Property - ability of a substane to undergo a chemical reaction
e.g.alkali metals - react with water!
Complete Phase
Activity
reactant + reactant ---> products
hydrogen + oxygen --> water
Light/heat
End of
Chp 2
Full transcript