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North Korean Genocide

Raising public awareness of genocide and how to prevent it through a case study of the North Korean Genocide.
by

Caitlin Pierson

on 13 June 2013

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Transcript of North Korean Genocide

Timeline
2013
1940
1950
1960-1980
1990
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The Target:
Anyone against communism and any Christians would be killed or sent to concentration camps. Their families would then be targeted through 3 generations, including all relatives and children without regard to their personal beliefs.
Religion
Because Christianity encompasses western thinking, it was not accepted in North Korea.
Christians were prosecuted for their beliefs and would publicly executed or forcibly transferred to concentration camps.
Kim Il-Sung
Fast Facts:
Kim Il-Sung was a member of the Chinese Communist party and later became the unit commander of the Anti-Japanese United Army (1932).
When Korea split in 1945, Il-Sung became the communist dictator of North Korea, also called the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)
Because of his communist beliefs, there was no independence in North Korea.
According to the United Nations Genocide Convention, the term genocide means "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group."

North Korea
The "cides" in North Korea
Works Cited
BBC News: Asia-Pacific. BBC News, 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-15278612>.
Chalk, Frank, and Kurt Jonassohn. "Genocide: Origins of a Concept." The History and Sociology of Genocide. New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. 8-12. Print.
Cross. MicErnest. N.p., 15 Dec. 2012. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://micernest.com/while-christianity-may-be-declining-in-britain-it-is-increasing-in-india/>.
"Kim Il-sung." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 4 Jan. 2013. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Il-sung>.
Korean Girl with Her Brother in Front of a Tank. 9 June 1951. Korean War Records. National Archives. National Archives. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.archives.gov/research/military/korean-war/>.
"North Korea." Genocide Watch: The International Alliance to End Genocide. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.genocidewatch.org/northkorea.html>.
North Korean Flag. The Gleaner. Rutgers University, 15 Apr. 2012. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://gleaner.rutgers.edu/2012/04/18/in-the-news-week-of-4152012/north-korea-flag/>.
North Korean Troops. World Policy Blog. World Policy Institute, 6 Feb. 2012. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.worldpolicy.org/blog/2012/02/06/genocide-north-korea>.
Oppression in North Korea. Research Topics. Blogger, 19 Jan. 2011. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://jeresearchtopics.blogspot.com/2011/01/oppression-in-north-korea.html>.
Park, Robert. "North Korea and the Genocide Movement." Harvard International Review. Harvard University, 27 Sept. 2011. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://hir.harvard.edu/north-korea-and-the-genocide-movement>.
- - -. "Time to End North Korea 'Genocide'." The Diplomat. N.p., 2 Feb. 2012. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://thediplomat.com/2012/02/02/time-to-end-north-korea-genocide/>.
"Photographs: Mass-Starvations in North Korea." North Korea Now. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.northkoreanow.org/film-photo/photographs-mass-starvations-in-north-korea/>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/>.
United to End Genocide. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.endgenocide.net>. United to End Genocide is a great public awareness website that allows people to learn about genocide. There is a page dedicated to countries currently at risk of genocide, as well as a page dedicated to recent news about those countries, and others that are recovering from genocide. United to End Genocide also allows people to give monetary donations that will go to relief funds for people who have been affected by genocide. I used this site to learn about genocide in general and, specifically, the genocide in North Korea. I also found a video titled "Who We Are" that I was able to incorporate into my project (http://endgenocide.org/who-we-are/).
Preventing Genocide:
A North Korea Case Study

Statistics
No Freedom:
Communist North Korea disallowed any western thinking
There was no independence
This caused problems during the genocide because there was virtually no way of sending accurate information about the devastating event staking place in North Korea.
What is Genocide?
1945:
Conflict between the north and the south of Korea continues at the end of World War II
Soviet Union Occupies the north
US troops occupy the south
1946:
The start of North Korea's Communist Party (Korean Worker's Party, WKP)
Kim Il-Sung was part of the leadership
1948:
Democratic People's Republic of Korea is declared
Kim Il-Sung is the leader
Soviet Troops withdraw
1991:
North and South Korea join the United Nations
1992:
North Korea allows inspections be the International Atomic Energy Agency
Later refuses to access to sites suspected of nuclear weapons production.
1994:
Death of Kim Il-Sung
Kim Jong-Il (son) succeeds him as leader
North Korea freezes nuclear program
The genocide ends, but the killings continue.
1950:
South Korea declares independence
North Korea invades
1953:
Korean War ends
Estimated number of deaths: 2,000,000
Considered to be part of/one cause of the genocide
1960-1989:
Genocide continues in North Korea
Thousands of people are killed
Infanticide and politicide, as well as discrimination against Christians.
Hundreds of thousands fled to China
Mostly women
80% of women who fled were either sex-trafficked or sold into forced marriages
Because of North Korea's strict policies, very little information about the genocide has made its way out of the country.
Here's what we know:
Estimated number of innocents murdered: between 710,000 and 3,500,000

Hundreds of thousands fled to China
Of these thousands, 80% of the women were were sex-trafficked or sold into forced marriages
1,600,000
Middle estimate of 1,600,000
North Korea is split in 2:
Communists
Those against communism.
Those against communism faced starvation and were at a higher risk of being imprisoned in camps.
The camps, similar to those of the Holocaust, were the death sites of thousands upon thousands of people.
Innocent people were sent because of their political and religious beliefs.
They were worked, starved, and beaten to death.
Hundreds died every day.
Concentration and Labor Camps
The different types of genocide used in North Korea:
Politicide
The killing of people solely because of their political beliefs
Those against communism
Infanticide
The Killing of children and babies in order to stop future generations
Forced abortions
International Community
Despite the knowledge of the killings in North Korea, the world's superpowers refuse to act. The United States, along with other countries, has regarded the situation in North Korea as a "non-issue."
But your help is needed, too.
Spreading your knowledge about genocide and donating to charities that help victims of genocide are monumental ways that can contribute to the end of these horrible killings.
Problems, Solutions, and Prevention
One of the main problems in regard to genocide is the lack of recognition. The international community is too afraid to act and countries are unwilling to take responsibility for their actions.
Problems:
Solutions:
Solutions include:
Interfering
Spreading word about genocide
Keeping a close eye on countries that are in conflict
Signs of Genocide:
War
Civil war
Inter-group violence
Discrimination
Political and/or social uncertainty
Ruling elite
Large split between classes
Scapegoating
Prevention:
In order to prevent genocide, the international community must monitor countries that show signs of conflict. Sites such as www.genocidewatch.org and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (www.ushmm.org) show countries that could be on their way to genocide. Helping these countries resolve their conflicts and offering aid to those in need can help prevent genocide in the future.
Chalk, Frank, and Kurt Jonassohn. "Genocide: Origins of a Concept." The History and Sociology of Genocide. New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. 8-12. Print.
Where you can help:
These sites welcomes donations for victims of genocide all over the world:
endgenocide.org
www.genocidewatch.org
www.ushmm.org
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