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YODER | ch.7launchinganewnation | USHISTORY8

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Transcript of YODER | ch.7launchinganewnation | USHISTORY8

launching the nation
chapter 7 | P.234
1
THE PRESIDENT
ST
1
JANUARY OF 1789
11 states voted (nc & ri)
electoral college
every member had
2
votes
no popular vote
Washington was the
unanimous
choice
John adams - vp
April 30, 1789
took office
new york city (18 months)
organization
-electoral college-
why 11?
100-senate (equal)
435-hr (population)
3-dc
538-electoral votes
MAGIC #
270
"THE FIRST OF EVERYTHING IN OUR SITUATION WILL SERVE TO ESTABLISH A PRECEDENT."
-GEORGE WASHINGTON
WASHINGTON'S CABINET
Alexander Hamilton - Secretary of the Treasury

Thomas Jefferson - Secretary of the States

Henry Knox - Secretary of War

Edmund Randolph - Attorney General

John Jay - Chief Justice
settle the national debt

attend foreign business & relations to govt

organizing u.s. army

Give advice on law matters

head of the supreme court
knox
Jefferson
randolph
hamilton
washington
[POPULATION]
4 million people (1790)
95% lived in rural areas
New York City & Philadelphia (>25,000)
Fort Wayne - 256,000
Elkhart - 51,000
Goshen - 32,000
Today
26 states larger
about same population as Kentucky or Oregon
objective
President Washington and
members of Congress established
a new national government.
2
section
[objective]
Treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton developed a financial plan for the national government.
GOVT IS BROKE
The newly formed U.S. government literally had no money. Congress imposed a
duty tax
on all foreign ships/goods entering U.S. ports. From this a very large money was obtained.
National Debt
-money owed by the united states-

$11.7
million - foreign countries
$40.4
million - to u.s. citizens
debts
1)
pay back france from rev. war
2)
pay debts soldiers &
citizens from war
3
states debts
Hamilton vs. Jefferson
HAMILTON
: wanted Federal government to pay state debts
help national gov't
states could develop business/trade
JEFFERSON
: didn't have Constitutional power
not wanting debts of other states
Virginia & North Carolina
WASHINGTON DC
southerners didn't like the capital in nyc
northern states too much influence
Jefferson, hamilton, madison (1790)
Compromise
move capital south
south supports debt plan
capital moved to Philadelphia (10 years)
until washington dc was completed
South of maryland & north of Virginia
FACTS
District of Columbia
Created by Constitution
not part of any state
Pierre L' Enfant
designer/planner of new capital
diagonal boulevards
Paris inspired
Benjamin Banneker
African American
surveyed the layout of city
layout
hamilton
jefferson
alexander
thomas
vs
BELIEFS
strong central government
balance power b/t citizens
new forms of economic growth
promoted manufacturing
pass higher tariffs -> protect US goods
BELIEFS
protect states rights
average citizen could make decisions
right of people to rule country
too much dependence on businesses
farmer's independent
national bank
hamilton's plan
create national bank
make loans to govt & businesses
national mint
20 yr. charter
each state start own bank
Elastic clause
opposition
too much fed. power
not constitutional
strict construction
Results
Washington agreed with Madison:
1791 - National Bank
1792 - Federal Mint (same currency)
fun facts about money
3
objective
The United States faced significant foreign & domestic challenges under Washington.

FOREIGN CHALLENGES
NEUTRALITY
French Revolution (1789)
over threw king & created republican form of govt
inspired by American Revolution
Beheaded King Louis XVI & Queen Marie-Antoinette
French & British go to war

neutrality proclamation
"The duty and interest of the U.S. require that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial towards the belligerent powers."
-GEORGE WASHINGTON
THE UNITED STATES WOULD NOT TAKE SIDES WITH ANY EUROPEAN COUNTRY AT WAR.
domestic conflicts
1) Northwest Territory
Miami Chief Little Turtle defeated U.S. forces in 1790 & 1791
Lived in the Fort Wayne area around the 3 rivers
Washington then game command of the West to Gen. Anthony Wayne
Arrived in Ohio in 1793
Built Ft. Greenville
By summer of 1794 fighting erupted b/t Little Turtle & Gen. Wayne
Native Americans outmatched w/o British help
fort greenville
ohio territory
battle of fallen timbers
The
Battle of Timbers
, on August 20, 1794, was the last major conflict of the Northwest Territory Indian War
near present-day
Toledo
, Ohio,
General
Anthony Wayne
led U.S. troops to victory over Chief Blue Jacket (Shawnees) and Chief Little (Miamis).
Treaty of Greenville
, signed the following year, opened up much of present-day Ohio to white settlers.
why called battle of fallen timbers?
2) Whiskey Rebellion
map
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4
SECTION
OBJECTIVE
The development of political parties in the
U.S. contributed to differing ideas about the
role of the government.
Election of
1796
In the Election of 1796 more than
one candidate ran for President for the first time.
Political Parties
began to shape politics.
FEDERALIST
DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN
Alexander Hamilton
strong central government
promote manufacturing/commerce
cities
Candidates for President
John Adams (MA)
Thomas Pinckney (SC)
Thomas Jefferson
small central government
agrarian society
rural
Candidates for President
Thomas Jefferson (VA)
Aaron Burr (NY)
RESULTS
JOHN ADAMS (FED) - 71
THOMAS JEFFERSON (DR) - 68
THOMAS PINCKNEY (fed) - 59
XYZ AFFAIR
First objective to improve relations with France
Adams sent over diplomats to negotiate treaty to protect US shipping & not go to war
French refused to speak w/them unless they paid $250,000 and gave them a loan
Thomas Pinckney
"Millions for defense; not one cent for tribute"
1798 Congress informed that peace seeking mission failed
(money paid in submission)
peace efforts
Preparations
30 Naval ships
peacetime standing army
didn't declare war
Peace
Adams refused go to war
Signed peace treaty with Napoleon Bonaparte
Alien and
Sedition Acts
Alien Law
gave President power to banish any alien or foreigner from country whose influence thought dangerous to welfare of country
Sedition Law
punished persons who should speak, write or publish anything false against the President or US government
Kentucky & Virginia denounced both laws
and called them dangerous to the country
both laws soon passed out of existence, but the idea that states might resist the federal government will lead to trouble
George Washington
DECEMBER 14,1799
Full transcript