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YODER | ch.7launchinganewnation | USHISTORY8
Transcript of YODER | ch.7launchinganewnation | USHISTORY8
chapter 7 | P.234
JANUARY OF 1789
11 states voted (nc & ri)
every member had
no popular vote
Washington was the
John adams - vp
April 30, 1789
new york city (18 months)
"THE FIRST OF EVERYTHING IN OUR SITUATION WILL SERVE TO ESTABLISH A PRECEDENT."
Alexander Hamilton - Secretary of the Treasury
Thomas Jefferson - Secretary of the States
Henry Knox - Secretary of War
Edmund Randolph - Attorney General
John Jay - Chief Justice
settle the national debt
attend foreign business & relations to govt
organizing u.s. army
Give advice on law matters
head of the supreme court
4 million people (1790)
95% lived in rural areas
New York City & Philadelphia (>25,000)
Fort Wayne - 256,000
Elkhart - 51,000
Goshen - 32,000
26 states larger
about same population as Kentucky or Oregon
President Washington and
members of Congress established
a new national government.
Treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton developed a financial plan for the national government.
GOVT IS BROKE
The newly formed U.S. government literally had no money. Congress imposed a
on all foreign ships/goods entering U.S. ports. From this a very large money was obtained.
-money owed by the united states-
million - foreign countries
million - to u.s. citizens
pay back france from rev. war
pay debts soldiers &
citizens from war
Hamilton vs. Jefferson
: wanted Federal government to pay state debts
help national gov't
states could develop business/trade
: didn't have Constitutional power
not wanting debts of other states
Virginia & North Carolina
southerners didn't like the capital in nyc
northern states too much influence
Jefferson, hamilton, madison (1790)
move capital south
south supports debt plan
capital moved to Philadelphia (10 years)
until washington dc was completed
South of maryland & north of Virginia
District of Columbia
Created by Constitution
not part of any state
Pierre L' Enfant
designer/planner of new capital
surveyed the layout of city
strong central government
balance power b/t citizens
new forms of economic growth
pass higher tariffs -> protect US goods
protect states rights
average citizen could make decisions
right of people to rule country
too much dependence on businesses
create national bank
make loans to govt & businesses
20 yr. charter
each state start own bank
too much fed. power
Washington agreed with Madison:
1791 - National Bank
1792 - Federal Mint (same currency)
fun facts about money
The United States faced significant foreign & domestic challenges under Washington.
French Revolution (1789)
over threw king & created republican form of govt
inspired by American Revolution
Beheaded King Louis XVI & Queen Marie-Antoinette
French & British go to war
"The duty and interest of the U.S. require that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial towards the belligerent powers."
THE UNITED STATES WOULD NOT TAKE SIDES WITH ANY EUROPEAN COUNTRY AT WAR.
1) Northwest Territory
Miami Chief Little Turtle defeated U.S. forces in 1790 & 1791
Lived in the Fort Wayne area around the 3 rivers
Washington then game command of the West to Gen. Anthony Wayne
Arrived in Ohio in 1793
Built Ft. Greenville
By summer of 1794 fighting erupted b/t Little Turtle & Gen. Wayne
Native Americans outmatched w/o British help
battle of fallen timbers
Battle of Timbers
, on August 20, 1794, was the last major conflict of the Northwest Territory Indian War
led U.S. troops to victory over Chief Blue Jacket (Shawnees) and Chief Little (Miamis).
Treaty of Greenville
, signed the following year, opened up much of present-day Ohio to white settlers.
why called battle of fallen timbers?
2) Whiskey Rebellion
The development of political parties in the
U.S. contributed to differing ideas about the
role of the government.
In the Election of 1796 more than
one candidate ran for President for the first time.
began to shape politics.
strong central government
Candidates for President
John Adams (MA)
Thomas Pinckney (SC)
small central government
Candidates for President
Thomas Jefferson (VA)
Aaron Burr (NY)
JOHN ADAMS (FED) - 71
THOMAS JEFFERSON (DR) - 68
THOMAS PINCKNEY (fed) - 59
First objective to improve relations with France
Adams sent over diplomats to negotiate treaty to protect US shipping & not go to war
French refused to speak w/them unless they paid $250,000 and gave them a loan
"Millions for defense; not one cent for tribute"
1798 Congress informed that peace seeking mission failed
(money paid in submission)
30 Naval ships
peacetime standing army
didn't declare war
Adams refused go to war
Signed peace treaty with Napoleon Bonaparte
gave President power to banish any alien or foreigner from country whose influence thought dangerous to welfare of country
punished persons who should speak, write or publish anything false against the President or US government
Kentucky & Virginia denounced both laws
and called them dangerous to the country
both laws soon passed out of existence, but the idea that states might resist the federal government will lead to trouble