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NEUROTRANSMITTERS

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Itai Levin

on 14 March 2014

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Transcript of NEUROTRANSMITTERS

Glycine
Glycine and Nervous System
Glycine is found in the central nervous system, especially in the spinal cord, brain stem, and retina.
Where is it found?
Function
As an inhibitory neurotransmitter, it participates in the processing of motor and sensory information that permits movement, vision, and audition.
How it works?
When glycine receptors are activated, chloride enters the neuron via ionotropic receptors, and the cell undergoes hyperpolarization, causing an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP).
A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that carries, boosts and modulates signals between neurons and other cells in the body.
There are two types of neurotransmitters:

Excitatory neurotransmitters: These types of neurotransmitters have excitatory effects on the neuron; they increase the likelihood that the neuron will fire an action potential. Some of the major excitatory neurotransmitters include epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Inhibitory neurotransmitters: These types of neurotransmitters have inhibitory effects on the neuron; they decrease the likelihood that the neuron will fire an action potential. Some of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters include serotonin and GABA

NEUROTRANSMITTERS
Serotonin
Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
90% of the body's serotonin is found in the digestive tract where it regulates intestinal movement. The rest is found in the CNS where it has several functions.
Serotonin plays in important role in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.
Serotonin cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, so all serotonin found in the brain is produced in the brain.
There are 13 different serotonin receptors.
While eating, serotonin binds to a specific kind of serotonin receptor, which in turn slows the production of dopamine, curbing the appetite.
Different diets cause different levels of serotonin in the CNS. A diet high in carbohydrates causes more serotonin to be released.
More muscular individuals produce more serotonin
Varying levels of serotonin in the brain can account for
up to 10% of anxiety disorders.
In certain animals, animals of different "social levels" have
different serotonin receptors, making it so that depending
on the "social level" of the animal, serotonin will have a different effect.

GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid)
Tension and Stress Control
"Mimicking Drug"
Z-drugs
Glutamine is a precursor to GABA. So... Glutaine ---converts to---> GABA
~When the body contains too much nervous tension and stress, sometimes it is caused by an abundance of norepinephrine or epinephrine (adrenaline).
~To balance the excess adrenaline, the brain produces an amino acid called GABA.
~It is a key inhibitory transmitter in the mature brain, yet primarily excitatory in the developing brain.
Norepinephrine

Attentiveness, emotions, sleeping, long-
term memory
How is it produced?
It is released as a hormone, by the arsenal medulla, into the blood and causes blood vessels to contract and the heart rate to increase. It also stimulates sweat glands and large internal organs.
Neurons that use it project bilaterally from the locus ceruleus along pathways to the cerebral cortex, limbic system, and spinal chord
(Sympathetic nervous system
/ excitatory neurotransmitter)
Why is it produced?
It plays an important role in the body's fight or flight response, a physiological reaction that occurs in stressful or harmful situations that are threats to survival.
It protects endorphins from breaking down prematurely.
What if it is not produced at an optimal level?
Excess norepinephrine can cause fear, anxiety, and depression
... and at an optimal level
It stimulates a sense of well being. It can even create a euphoric effect in stressful situations.
Depression is often linked with either low levels of serotonin in the brain, or low levels of serotonin receptors. This is why many anti-depressants rely on either blocking inhibiting the enzymes that break down serotonin, or inhibiting the neurotransmitters reuptake.
Fluoxetine (Prozac) for example is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, meaning it stops serotonin from being reabsorbed by the presynaptic nerve, so that it stays longer in the synaptic cleft.
Some illegal drugs, such ecstasy, cocaine, and amphetamine, can have a similar effect on serotonin.
Seratonin-norepinephrin reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) treat depression by increasing the amount of seratonin and norepinephrine available to postsynaptic cells in the brain. They function by preventing the seratonin and norepinephrine transporter from taking their neurotransmittors back to their storage vesicles for later use.

C4H9NO2
Consequently, when an external substance carries out the role of a natural internal substance, the body reduces production of the natural chemicals. This can create a deficiency in these natural chemicals, jeopardizing an individual's health.
The two outer rings are sensitive to external substances and chemicals, such as alcohol.
Like neurotransmitters, these external substances attach to the GABA receptor site and even affect the brain similarly to their respective neurotransmitters.
...are a group of nonbenzodiazepine drugs, most of which begin with the letter "Z", with similar effects as benzodiazepines (ex: bind to the benzodiazepines site to produce calming

They are primariy used to treat insomnia.

Moreover, they are used over benzodiazepines due to their lack of disruption in "sleep architecture."

(Nonbenzodiazepine drugs: psychoactive, similar to benzodiazepines but different in molecular structure.)
Glycine is a neurotransmitter only in vertebrate animals. The glycine receptor is primarily found in the ventral spinal cord in the Central Nervous System.
Glycine as an Amino Acid
Glycine is an amino acid found in the protein of all life forms. It is the simplest of amino acids in the body, consisting of an amino group and a carboxyl (acidic) group attached to a carbon atom. It is the only protein amino acid that does not have chirality. Although most glycine is found in proteins, free glycine is found in body fluids as well as in plants.
Acetylcholine
A neurotransmitter released at automatic synapses and neuromuscular junctions and formed enzymatically in tissues from choline.
Nicotine like Acetylcholine will bind to the nicotinic receptors causing a channel to open, allowing sodium ions to enter. Once inside, the sodium will depolarize the cell membrane, exciting the cell. Next, the channel is then closed, and the receptors are temporarily unresponsive, leading to desensitization.
Nicotine
Excitatory
Muscle Stimulation
Acetylcholine binds to the acetylcholine receptors, located on muscle fibers. This opens up the sodium channels in the cell membrane, which leads to muscle contraction.
Inhibitory and Excitatory
Sensations
Acetylcholine will filter out the weak sensory inputs to the medium spiny neurons (layer 4). However, the sensory inputs that reach layer 5 are amplified. (sleeping)
Production
Amphetamine
Amphetamine, or 'speed', is an excitatory stimulant that works to stimulate the central nervous system. It increases the amount of dopamine in the synaptic cleft of nerves released by the brain's reward system, producing a euphoric sensation. Amphetamine is a stimulant as well as an appetite suppressant. It has been used as medication for nasal congestion, depression and obesity, among others. It can enhance performance and cognition, cause increase in heart rate and blood pressure, and cause insomnia. Its chemical formula is NH2. Amphetamine is found in several common recreational drugs.
Amphetamine
as a drug
Amphetamine is a core component of several well-known drugs such as methamphetamine (meth), MDMA (ecstasy), and DOM (STP). All of these drugs are CNS stimulants with powerful euphoric effects lasting anywhere from 6-12 hours from a single dose. Meth especially is a highly addictive street drug that is growing in popularity due to its relatively low cost. Long-term effects of these drugs are disastrous to the individual, and can completely destroy lives due to the rapid dependency users develop for them. Many working-class individuals use meth and similar drugs to increase their work hours and therefore make more money, although often this money goes into buying more of the drug.
Endorphins
Known as the body's painkillers, endorphins are produced by the pituitary glands and the hypothalamus during pain, exercise, excitement, spicy food consumption and sexual activity. Endorphins suppress pain by binding to opiate receptors and blocking the transmission of impulses at synapses involved in pain perception. Opiates like morphine mimic endorphins. Endorphins allow an individual to achieve a runner's high. Interestingly, acupuncture contributes to an increase in the production of endorphins. Lack of endorphins has been associated the placebo effect, because a tricked hypothalamus can release endorphins.
Epinephrine

E
pinephrine, more commonly know as adrenaline is a neurotransmitter and hormone. it regulates
attention, mental focus, arousal, and cognition. it also inhibits the production of insulin and has a role in maintaining the concentration of fatty acids in the bloodstream. Epinephrine is made from norepinephrine, Low levels can cause fatigue, lack of focus, and difficulty in weight loss, while high levels can cause sleep problems, anxiety, and attention disorders
Adrenaline is administered in the form of a direct injection to the heart to combat anaphylactic shock, a procedure made public by the popular film
Pulp Fiction.
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