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Copy of Risk Factors in Sport

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Callum Wilson

on 25 February 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Risk Factors in Sport

Extrinsic Factors "A risk that could lead to injury from an external force" Environmental Factors The weather can affect us in many ways, including making playing conditions dangerous. Rain Snow Frost These can all make surfaces very dangerous to play on. The reason for this could be people slipping over in wet, frosty conditions, potentially injuring ankles, knees, wrists and possibly their head. The condition of the facility, such as the surface should be considered as part of a risk assessment. Heat can also affect people whilst they are playing sport. The time of day should be considered and participants should ensure they drink enough fluids.
Coaches should keep an eye on this too, as participants could dehydrate if they do not consume enough fluids. We should also look at our surroundings to make sure they are safe. What do you think you should check before playing any sport? Is there anything wrong with the surface such as holes or it being slippery/wet? Is there anything that could fall on a person? Could a person run into something? Is there any trip hazards? Any other hazards, such as sharp objects, appropriate boundaries/barriers to keep participants in the playing area and spectators out? Environmental Factors should be considered when completing a ......... RISK ASSESSMENT
Other things to consider when thinking of External Factors..... Correct clothing and footwear should be worn whilst participating in sport Loose, baggy clothing may feel comfortable for some, but this could become caught in machines, potentially pulling a person's fingers/limbs into the machine... Another extrinsic factor that could lead to injury is people/coaches ignoring NGB guidelines. These guidelines are put into place to ensure that everyone who does a particular sport are playing to the same rules. These rules ensure that participants are safe, and might include the rules of the game, what is not allowed and also the disciplinary procedures, such as yellow and red cards. These guidelines also indicate what techniques are allowed, and how to do them. Poor technique could be a result of Poor coaching An example could be Weight lifting with the wrong technique, it could affect results in training, but could also lead to physical damage such as hurting muscles in the body. Poor technique can result in injuries, such as muscle injuries or injuries to others. Performance can also be affected by poor technique. The guidelines set by NGB's can also include equipment specification. This could be safety equipment, equipment can be vital to the safety of players in sport. For example post protectors in rugby. These guidelines will specify:
What equipment.
The standards to be met by the equipment.
Maintenance guidelines.
How the equipment should be used. If equipment is not maintained or used correctly, people can get hurt so it is important to ensure that people know how to use equipment before they use it and what to look out for so that they can spot a fault and report it. A coach may follow the guidelines set by NGB's, but if their coaching technique is wrong, the team/person they are coaching could be affected.

If the coach/teacher doesn't make that activity interesting it can effect the whole classroom climate.

Poor coaching- Lack of interest- loss of concentration- incident occurs- injury happens Another extrinsic factor that can have a negative effect on people is It is important for coaches to be able to communicate effectively with people they are coaching. If they don't a person may not know what to do and/or how to do it which can result in injury from poor technique There are many safety hazards that should be considered when doing sport. Surfaces should be checked for suitability, equipment should be checked to ensure it is fit for use. Equipment should also be stored properly to ensure it doesn't fall or is a trip hazard, or even something that could be ran into. Equipment left lying about can easily create a trip hazard, such as dumb bells left on the floor in the gym Intrinsic Factors "The risk of injury though internal , physical aspects of your body." Level Of Fitness Not every one has the same level of fitness. Some people are naturally gifted, and some have developed an interest in sport and enjoy keeping fit. It has been proven that those who lead a sedentary lifestyle and/or those with a history of inactivity are 2-3 more times likely to sustain an injury when participating in a sporting activity. Those who do have a history of activity pick up less injuries as a result. A person's level of fitness can also be affected if they are recovering from an injury, as their activity levels may be reduced possibly to none at all. Returning to a sport after not having done it for a long period an also affect fitness level. A person should ease themselves back into the sport, progressively building up their fitness. Their coach should help them do this and not just throw them in at the deep end expecting them to perform like they used to be able to as this could result in injury. Previous Injury A person may have stopped what activities they were doing because of an injury, or possibly been hurt outside of a sporting environment. If they start doing or return to sport to soon, this could make their injury worse. Rehabilitation should be taken seriously and the intensity should be built up.
People should consult their doctor and/or coach if they are unsure. Coaches should ensure that the person is fit to start training. A doctor may prescribe a specific exercise to aid for the rehabilitation process. Effects of Training Level of Flexibility Flexibility can increased with the right training frequently. Females are generally more supple than males. A lack of flexibility can lead to injuries. If a person tries to push there body past its limits muscular injuries could occur. The body has built in mechanisms to prevent this from occuring but limiting the movement before it is at is maximum. Training can increase flexibilty but it must be done frequently, such as twice a week to keep any gains. Incorrect technique This can lead to injury as the body could be moved in a way that place stress on muscles, tendons & ligaments.
Incorrect technique could also injure another person.
There is also the potential to be injured by using equipment wrong. This could be from the equipment itself, or by the technique when using the equipment, such as when bench pressing. Gender Males tend to be more muscular, whereas females are generally more supple. However females are 2.5 times more likely to sustain an injury such as ACL ruptures and stress fractures. Males are 3 times more likely to sustain ankle injuries. Correct technique and nutrition can help prevent injuries as well as help to repair them. Age A persons age can affect their ability as well as the chance of them sustaining an injury. As we get older muscular size and strength decreases.
Bone mass declines between the ages of 20-30 and cardiac output is 20% less in elderly people. The risk of obesity also increases. A persons level of activity along with nuitrition can help to maintain the body. If a person leads a sedentary lifestyle once they've hit their 20's or 30's they could gain weight and other negative affects of being inactive. Body Weight As well as the visual affects of being overweight, knee and ankle pain are associated with large body weight. Height In males there is no correlation to say height affects the chance of injury. However, in females the tallest and smallest are most likely to get an injury.
Shorter females have a shorter stride.
Taller females have a higher centre of gravity, and the load placed on the lower limbs is greater. Postural Defects Postural defects can affect people in different ways depending on their severity. A person should consult their doctor if they are uncertain about doing any sporting activity. Lordosis: An exaggeration of forward curve in the lumbar region. Scoliosis: A disorder in which the vertebrae that make up the spine twist laterally out of line from side to side into an S or C shape. Kyphosis: An abnormal outward curvature of the spine in the thoracic region a.k.a A Humpback. Not enough clothing can be bad also. If a participant is not wearing enough clothing, their body and limbs will become cold. This can affect performance, such as technique and has the potential to cause physical injury such as injured muscles. If the weather is less than desirable, a good warm up is vital to preventing injuries Sport Injuries - Introduction Injuries are often a common occurrence for those participating in sport. It is therefore important that those involved in sport gain an appreciation for the main factors that can cause injuries as well as how to prevent them. You also need to know how effective treatment and rehabilitation can reduce the recovery time needed. Today we are looking at Extrinsic and Intrinsic factors Muscle Imbalance

Training one side of the body or one group of muscles (quads v hams) more than another Overuse injuries are caused by repetitive actions, which damage tendons, ligaments, muscles and soft tissues over a period of time. Professional sports players spend hours training and practicing certain movements and actions every day; consequently, overuse injuries are common in sport Overuse
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