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Old Testament Timeline (Joshua - Ezra...) by Joshua Walters
Transcript of Old Testament Timeline (Joshua - Ezra...) by Joshua Walters
Judges 7:20, "The three companies blew their trumpets and smashed the jars. Grasping the torches in the left hands and holding in their right hands the trumpets they were to blow, they shouted, 'A sword for the Lord and for Gideon.'"
Judges 2:18-19 ‘Whenever the LORD raised up a judge for them, he was with the judge and saved them out of the hands of their enemies as long as the judge lived; for the LORD had compassion on them as they groaned under those who oppressed and afflicted them. But when the judge died, the people returned to ways even more corrupt than those of their fathers, following other gods and serving and worshiping them. They refused to give up their evil practices and stubborn ways.’
Judges 3:31, "After Ehud cam Shamgar son of Anath, who struck down six hundred Philistines with an oxgoad. He too saved Israel."
Ibzan, Elon and Abdon
I & II Samuel
I & II Kings
Destruction of the Temple
A Repulsive Leader
A Reluctant Leader
Written during the Babylonian Exile (560 B.C.)
The Book of Kings chronicles the downward spiral of Israel's spiritual life in that they repeatedly disobeyed the covenant stipulations outlined in Deuteronomy.
The Main Idea: God faithfully keeps all his promises that He made to His People, but this does not negate the need for obedience on the part of His People.
Chapters 1–12 – The Conquest of the Land
Chapters 13–22 – The Division of the Land
Chapters 23–24 – The Covenant Renewal
I will give you every place where you set your foot, as I promised Moses. Your territory will extend from the desert to Lebanon, and from the great river, the Euphrates-- all the Hittite country-- to the Great Sea on the west.
So Joshua subdued the whole region, . . . He totally destroyed all who breathed, just as the LORD, the God of Israel, had commanded. . . because the LORD, the God of Israel, fought for Israel.
The English title is somewhat misleading because of our conception of a Judge. They were more like military leaders. The Hebrew title, Shofetim, provides a better understanding because it translates as “Chieftains” or “Tribal Leaders.”
Judges represents a very dark and chaotic time in the nation Israel. That time is summed up in the repeated refrain “In those days there was no king in Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes.”
Theological Conclusions of Judges:
►People are rebellious creatures who frequently abandon the true God. – did what was right in their eyes.
►Each Generation must make a choice to follow God’s way.
►Despite their unfaithfulness, God faithfully responded in compassion to his people. Keep in mind, however, the Deuteronomic Historical perspective with its focus on the conditional nature of the covenant.
►God used significantly flawed leaders to rescue a faulty people.
►The Book of Judges demonstrates the need for a Deliverer that will rescue the people for the sinfulness of their hearts.
Purposes of Samuel:
The historical purpose is to trace the transition from the rule of the judges to the kings, but more importantly to trace the origins of the Davidic dynasty.
The doctrinal purpose is to demonstrated the disaster of disobedience with Saul (1 Sam. 15:22) and to show the divine choice for David as a man after God’s heart.
The Christological purpose focuses on the anointed one (1 Sam 2:10) and the coming eternal king from David’s line (2 Sam 7:11-16).
Outline of I Samuel:
Samuel as Prophet, Priest, and Judge (1 Samuel 1-7)
Saul as Israel’s Choice for King (1 Samuel 8-15)
David as God’s Choice for King (1 Samuel 16--2 Samuel 24)
Samuel’s Prophetic Call (3:1–4:1)
I Samuel 3:10, "The Lord came and stood there, calling as at the other times, 'Samuel! Samuel!' Then Samuel said, 'Speak, for your servant is listening.'"
I Samuel 8:7, "And the Lord told him: 'Listen to all that the people are saying to you; it is not you they have rejected, but they have rejected me as their king.'"
I Samuel 9:2, "He had a son named Saul, an impressive young man without equal among the Israelites - a head taller than any of the others."
Saul – Israel’s First King: Chosen and then Rejected (1 Sam 9–15)
Samuel anoints Saul to be king (10:1–11)
1 Samuel 10:1 Then Samuel took a flask of oil and poured it on Saul's head and kissed him, saying, "Has not the LORD anointed you leader over his inheritance?
Saul Becomes King (10:23–11:15; 13:1)
The Lord Rejects Saul as King (13:1, 7–13; 15:2, 20–23)
1 Samuel 15:20-23 "But I did obey the LORD," Saul said. "I went on the mission the LORD assigned me. I completely destroyed the Amalekites and brought back Agag their king. 21 The soldiers took sheep and cattle from the plunder, the best of what was devoted to God, in order to sacrifice them to the LORD your God at Gilgal." 22 But Samuel replied: "Does the LORD delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices as much as in obeying the voice of the LORD? To obey is better than sacrifice, and to heed is better than the fat of rams. 23 For rebellion is like the sin of divination, and arrogance like the evil of idolatry. Because you have rejected the word of the LORD, he has rejected you as king."
David – Israel’s Greatest King: The Early Years (1 Sam 16–31)
Samuel Anoints David (16:1–13)
1 Samuel 16:11 So he asked Jesse, "Are these all the sons you have?" "There is still the youngest," Jesse answered, "but he is tending the sheep." Samuel said, "Send for him; we will not sit down until he arrives." 12 So he sent and had him brought in. He was ruddy, with a fine appearance and handsome features. Then the LORD said, "Rise and anoint him; he is the one." 13 So Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the presence of his brothers, and from that day on the Spirit of the LORD came upon David in power. Samuel then went to Ramah.
David and Goliath (17:32–51)
1 Samuel 17: 32 David said to Saul, "Let no one lose heart on account of this Philistine; your servant will go and fight him. . . 45 David said to the Philistine, "You come against me with sword and spear and javelin, but I come against you in the name of the LORD Almighty, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied. 46 This day the LORD will hand you over to me, and I'll strike you down and cut off your head. Today I will give the carcasses of the Philistine army to the birds of the air and the beasts of the earth, and the whole world will know that there is a God in Israel. 47 All those gathered here will know that it is not by sword or spear that the LORD saves; for the battle is the LORD's, and he will give all of you into our hands."
David refuses to “touch the Lord’s anointed” (24:1–7; 26:5–12).
Outline of II Samuel:
David’s Enthronement over Israel (2 Sam 1–6)
The Establishment of the Davidic Dynasty (2 Sam 7–10)
David’s Shameful and Grievous Error (2 Sam 11–12)
The Ensuing Impact of David’s Sin (2 Sam 13–19)
A Man After God’s Heart
David Completely Trusted in God.
David Actively Pursued God and Worshipped him with every ounce of his being (2 Sam 6:12-22)
David Practiced Justice and Mercy (2 Sam. 9:1-11)
David Repented of his Sin and took Responsibility for the consequences.
David lived in Submission to the Authority of His King — The LORD.
The Book of Kings begins with King Solomon who successfully built a Temple for God in Jerusalem. Solomon, however, turned away from God later in life, so God gave the Ten Northern Tribes to Jeroboam.
This brought about a division between the Southern Kingdom of Judah and the Northern Kingdom of Israel.
Only the descendents of David ruled in Judah, but Israel saw a number of different dynasties.
None of the Northern Kings followed God — they all followed the sins of Jeroboam. Some of Judah’s kings followed God like David did, but many of them did not.
I & II Chronicles
Solomon, son of David, became king and built the Temple in Jerusalem. This Temple, where God placed his name, was the center of Israel’s spiritual life and communion with their covenant God.
When the kingdom split Jeroboam built two competing temples replete with golden calves.
Every king in Israel followed this sin of Jeroboam and promoted this idolatry.
The kings of Judah were a mixed bag of faithfulness and idolatry.
Some kings followed the LORD as David had, but other instituted and promote the worship of idols.
The Fall of Jerusalem (2 Kings 25):
The balance of power in the Middle East shifted from Assyria to Babylon between the times of Josiah to the time of Jehoiakim, his son.
Nebuchadnezzar, the King of Babylon, managed to subdue every region he set out to conquer. He fixed his sights on Jerusalem.
After a couple of deportations and making King Zedekiah a vassal, Nebuchadnezzar (586 B.C) ordered the complete destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple.
The Fall of Samaria (2 Kings 17)
All the kings of Israel followed the sin of Jeroboam son of Nebat by leading the nation into idolatry.
Hoshea was the last king, but not as evil as his predecessors (17:2).
Assyria (in modern day Iraq) was the dominant military power of the day and Hosea was a vassal (servant) to Shalmaneser—the Assyrian King. Hoshea, however, rebelled against Assyrian by making an alliance with Egypt and then refusing to pay tribute.
The King of Assyria subsequently attacked Israel and destroyed Samaria after a three year siege. Whenever the Assyrians conquered an area they would deport the majority of the citizens and replace it with other groups of people deported from their homeland. It is how they kept their people in subjugation so that they would not band together in rebellion. As such, Samaria became a melting pot of people from a number of different areas. The remnant of Israelites then intermarried with these Gentiles and they became known as the ―Samaritans.‖
2 Kgs 17:7–23 gives the theological explanation justifying why Israel was so judged.
6 In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord, high and exalted, seated on a throne; and the train of his robe filled the temple. 2 Above him were seraphim, each with six wings: With two wings they covered their faces, with two they covered their feet, and with two they were flying. 3 And they were calling to one another:
“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord Almighty;
the whole earth is full of his glory.”
4 At the sound of their voices the doorposts and thresholds shook and the temple was filled with smoke.
5 “Woe to me!” I cried. “I am ruined! For I am a man of unclean lips, and I live among a people of unclean lips, and my eyes have seen the King, the Lord Almighty.”
6 Then one of the seraphim flew to me with a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with tongs from the altar. 7 With it he touched my mouth and said, “See, this has touched your lips; your guilt is taken away and your sin atoned for.”
8 Then I heard the voice of the Lord saying, “Whom shall I send? And who will go for us?”
And I said, “Here am I. Send me!”
The Message of the Prophets
God is the Sovereign Lord of History (Isa 10:5-15; Hab 1:5-17; Ezek 38:3-16; 39:2-3)
The Need to Be Right with God (Isa 30:15; Amos 4:6-12)
The Need for Morality in Religion and Society (Jer 7:1-15)
Judgment and Salvation/Hope (Isa 6:13; 28:5; 29:5; 31:5; Amos 9:11ff).
The Coming Messianic Kingdom
The Book of Ezra describes the initial return of exiles to Jerusalem after the period of the Babylonian captivity. The first order of business for the remnant was to rebuild the altar and the temple of God.
The Book of Ezra Is A Book About God’s Restoration of His People. Restoration in two essential phases:
Phase 1: God Restores His People to His Worship.
Phase 2: God Restores His People the His Word.
In the Book of Nehemiah we will see the final phase of the Restoration in that (3) God Restores His People to Safety and Security.
Ezra 3:11 “With praise and thanksgiving they sang to the LORD: ‘He is good; his love to Israel endures forever.’ And all the people gave a great shout of praise to the LORD, because the foundation of the house of the LORD was laid.”