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MODAL VERBS: SIMPLE AND PERFECT

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Juan Blesa Simarro

on 3 October 2015

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Transcript of MODAL VERBS: SIMPLE AND PERFECT

MODAL VERBS: SIMPLE AND PERFECT
Modal verbs are sometimes referred to as
Modal Auxiliary verbs because they help other verbs

They are:
Can
Be able to
Can’t
Could
May / Might
Should /Ought to
Need to
Have to
Must
Mustn’t
Don’t have to
Needn’t
Would

They are Auxiliary verbs that provide additional and specific meaning to the main verb of the sentence

They do not accept conjugation
They do not need other auxiliary verbs





Example: Mary could play the piano

There is no “s” in singular
There is no “do / does” in the question
There is no “don’t / doesn’t” in the negative

You had to come early yesterday

You must come early

They will be able to play the piano in the future

They can play the piano



Can

is completed with
be able to
Must
is completed with
have to


Modal verbs do not have all the tenses
Modal verbs use other verbs to complete the tenses

They can have more than one meaning depending on the situations





LET’S DIVIDE THEM IN:

SIMPLE MODALS
PERFECT MODALS



1. Ability
: Expresar habilidad o capacidad (“saber” / “poder”)
You
can
swim very well.
2. Request:
Hacer peticiones, dar y pedir permiso.
Can
you help me wash the car?
3. Possibility:
Indicar posibilidad
I
can
go in two directions.

1. Ability:
Expresa habilidad, como can, y se usa en todos los tiempos verbales que can no tiene.
Don’t worry. I will
be able to
find the street.
Have you been able to finish your homework?
2. Possibility:
Indica posibilidad.
You will
be able to
find a place to park the car near the station.

1. Inability:
Falta de habilidad (no saber) o de capacidad (no poder)
He is very nervous. He
can’t
sleep.
2. Prohibition:
Prohibición
You
can’t
eat sweets before dinner.
3. Disbelief / Deduction:
Deducción negativa o certeza de que algo es imposible.
That
can’t
be your father. He looks very young.

1. Past ability:
Habilidad o capacidad en el pasado.
My mother
could
dance when she was a child.
2. Polite request:
Peticiones más educadas que con can.
Could
you pass me that book, please?
3. Polite suggestion:
Sugerencias formales.
We
could
visit him next week.
4. Possibility:
Posibilidad más remota que con can.
My sister
could
come to the party.




1. Possibility:
Los dos expresan posibilidad, pero con might la posibilidad es más remota.
It
may / might
be a sunny weekend.
2. Polite request / Permission:
Sólo interrogativa, may es una forma educada de pedir algo; las peticiones que empiezan por
May I
have pueden traducirse por “¿Me das?” o “¿Me da usted?”.
May
I borrow your dictionary, please?

1. Advice, opinion:

Los dos expresan consejo u opinión, pero should se usa mucho más (ought to es muy raro en negativa e interrogativa).
She
should / ought

to tell them the truth.
He
ought to/ should
help that old woman.

HAD BETTER:
1. Advice, opinion:

Forma coloquial de expresar lo mismo que con
should.
No se suele utilizar en interrogativa.
You
had better
see the doctor / You’
d better
see the doctor. (Es mejor que veas al médico)
You’
d better
not go out in the rain. ( Es mejor que no salgas con la lluvia)
2. Warning:
También se utiliza para expresar una advertencia, como avisando al oyente de que algo malo o desagradable le puede ocurrir si no hace lo que le decimos. Entonces viene a significar “Será mejor que…”, “Más vale que…”
You’
d better
tidy your room now! (¡Será mejor que arregles tu habitación ahora!)
You’
d better
not take my car! (¡Más vale que no cojas mi coche!)



NEED TO
1. Obligation, necessity:
No es un modal, pero se usa en afirmativa, igual que have to para expresar obligación y necesidad.
I
need to
buy some meat for dinner.
NEEDN’T
1. Lack of obligation / necessity:
Éste si es un verbo modal e indica ausencia de obligación y necesidad, igual que DON’T HAVE TO.
You
needn’t
take me home today.
DON’T HAVE TO
1. Lack of obligation / necessity.
Igual que needn’t
You
don’t have to
attend the conference.

MUST
1. Obligation, strong necessity:
Obligación en el presente.Las personas de autoridad emplean must.
She
must
never wear a uniform at her school.
2. Certainty that something is true / Strong belief:
También se usa para expresar una deducción lógica sobre un hecho presente (“debe de”, “tener que”).
My cousin has broken his leg. It
must
hurt him very much.
HAVE TO
1. Obligation, necessity:
Obligación en presente y en los demás tiempos. Lo usa todo el mundo para decir lo que tiene que hacer.
You
have to
study hard if you want to get good marks.
MUSTN’T
1. Prohibition:
Indica prohibición.
You
mustn’t
step on the grass.

1. Formal request:
En interrogativa es una manera formal de pedir a alguien que haga algo.
Would
you come with me to the wedding?
2. Offer:
Con el verbo like se usa para hacer ofrecimientos o invitaciones.
Would
you like coffee?


COULD HAVE + P.P.
1. Ability to have done something but in fact did not.
Habilidad de haber hecho algo pero finalmente no lo hizo .

Example:
You
could have played
better

COULDN’T HAVE + P.P.
1. Certainty that something didn’t happen.
Certeza de que algo no pudo haber sucedido


Example:
He
couldn’t

have passsed
because you hadn’t studied enough








Simple Modals
MODAL + infinitive without to
Perfect Modals
MODAL + HAVE + past participle
MAY / MIGHT HAVE
MAY / MIGHT HAVE + P.P.
1. A guess about a past action.
Una suposición sobre algo pasado.

Example:
Joe
may / might

have taken
the wrong train.


MUST
MUST HAVE + P.P.
1. Certainty or logical conclusion of an event in the past.
Conclusión lógica sobre un hecho del pasado

Example:
Peter has arrived late. He
must have been
in a traffic jam
SHOULD / OUGHT TO
SHOULD / OUGHT TO HAVE + P.P.
1. Criticism or reject of an event in the past.

Queja de que algo haya ocurrido en el pasado o lamento de que no se haya cumplido lo que esperábamos

Example: You
should / ought to have warned
me earlier

SHOULDN’T HAVE + P.P.
1. Criticism or reject of an event in the past.
Expresa nuestra opinión crítica sobre un hecho pasado.

Example: He
shouldn’t have told
them


WOULD / NEEDN'T
WOULD HAVE + P.P.
1. Willingness to have done something in the past but in fact did not.

Quiso haber hecho algo, pero no pudo hacerlo por causas externas

Example: I
would have visited
you, but I forgot your address

NEEDN’T HAVE + P.P.
1. No neccessity to have done something that was done.
No había necesidad de hacer lo que se hizo en el pasado

Example: You
needn’t have bought
it .
COULD HAVE /
COULDN'T HAVE
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