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Psychology in Everyday Life Chapter 12

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Janet Neyer

on 12 November 2015

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Transcript of Psychology in Everyday Life Chapter 12

Defining Psychological Disorders:
Deviant behavior: a violation of cultural standards.
Distressful behavior: distressful to themselves or others.
Dysfunctional behavior: maladaptive behavior that interferes with life.
The DSM 5:
contains a listing of diagnostic criteria for every psychiatric disorder recognized by the U.S. healthcare system
collects and communicates accurate public health statistics about the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders
does not include treatment
Concerns about diagnostic system
The danger of overdiagnosis
The power of diagnostic labels
Confusion of serious mental disorders with normal problems
The illusion of objectivity
Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Panic Disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Specific Phobias
Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, fearful and nervous
Panic Disorder: an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread accompanied by terror, chest pain, or choking
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia lingering for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
18% (NIMH 2010)
This Emotional Life, Disk 2:
Scene - Stress, Hormones, and PTSD
Phobia: an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive, ritualized behaviors (compulsions) designed to reduce anxiety
Mood Disorders
9.5% (NIMH 2010)
Bipolar Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder: A mood disorder in which a person experiences significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest in most activities for two or more weeks.
Depressed mood
Reduced interest in almost all activities
Significant weight gain or loss, without dieting
Sleep disturbance (insomnia or too much sleep)
Change in motor activity (too much or too little)
Fatigue or loss of energy
Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
Reduced ability to think or concentrate
Recurrent thoughts of death
The DSM diagnosis for depression requires 5 of these symptoms to be evident in the past two weeks
Bipolar Disorder: A mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the over-excited state of mania.
Real interviews...

Dissociative Disorders
disorder in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts and feelings
Dissociative Identity Disorder: A rare disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities; formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD).
Controversies with DID diagnosis
Brief history
between 1930 and 1960: 2 cases per decade
by the 1980s, 20,000 cases
influence of the media
Not common outside North America (nonexistent in many places)
Pressure and suggestion by therapists
DSM Diagnostic Criteria:
presence of 2 or more distinct personalities
at least two of the personalities "take control"
inability to recall important info
severe trauma in childhood, in particular, extreme physical and sexual abuse
dissociation occurs as a defense mechanism to cope with trauma
Positive Symptoms
Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral excesses
Examples include...
Hallucinations: Sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulation.
Examples: Hearing voices, seeing people who are not there, sensations on the skin (itching, tingling, etc.)
Delusions: False beliefs that often accompany schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.
Examples: Some schizophrenic patients may believe they are famous people (the President, Jesus, Napoleon, etc) or that they are being persecuted in strange ways (by aliens, by the CIA, etc.)
Disorganized, Incoherent Speech
Examples: inventing words, repeating the same word or phrase over and over, speaking very rapidly or very slowly, speaking unintelligible words, mumbling.
Grossly Disorganized and Inappropriate Behavior
Negative Symptoms
Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral deficits (missing things)
Examples include...
Loss of motivation
Emotional flatness
Social withdrawal
Slowed speech or no speech
Understanding schizophrenia
Brain Abnormalities
dopamine overactivity
structural abnormality
Prenatal risk
Genetics and Risk
The risk of developing schizophrenia (i.e., prevalence) in one’s lifetime increases as the genetic relatedness with a diagnosed schizophrenic increases.
affecting 1% of the population
Understanding Psychological Disorders
The Medical Model
Today, we use terms like mental health, mental illness, symptoms, treatment. We diagnose and hospitalize.
By the 1800s, we shifted our thinking from a moral approach to a medical model.
The Biopsychosocial Approach
Mental illness is formed by the interaction of our biology, our psychology, and our social-cultural environment.
Evidence for this approach:
people in different cultures display disorders differently
the prevalence of disorders can shift with a culture
the PBJ demo
The risk of suicide is five times greater for those who have been depressed than for the general population.
The Point to Remember:
If a friend talks about suicide, remember to ACT-
Acknowledge their feelings
Care and let them know it
Tell someone who can help them professionally
Explaining mood disorders
From the social-cognitive perspective...
Behavior and thoughts change with depression.
Depression is widespread (one of only two disorders found worldwide).
Women's risk of major depression is nearly twice as high as men's.
Stressful events often precede depression.
Depression is striking earlier and affecting more people.
From the biological perspective...
Risk increases if you have a parent or sibling with a mood disorder.
In twins, risk of developing depression climbs to 50% if one twin has depression; risk of developing bipolar climbs to 70% if one twin has bipolar.
During depression, brain activity slows; during mania, it increases.
From the psychological perspective...
Depression becomes a vicious cycle.
Take One Step: Caring for Depression
Chapter 2: A Medical Disorder
Patient Voices: Bipolar Disorder
Full transcript