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Rwandan Genocide

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by

Rachel D'Antonio

on 26 March 2015

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Transcript of Rwandan Genocide

The Rwandan Genocide
of 1994
Forgiveness & Reconciliation
Gacaca Court
By:
Jan, Lindsay, Émilie, Chanel, and Rachel


Conflict Overview
Context
Geography
Great Lakes Region
Resources
Clans/Tribes
History
Hutus (85%)
Twa (1 %)
Tutsi (14%-15%)
The Early Tutsis and Power
Mid-17th Century
The Kingdom of Rwanda
African Exploration - Mid 1800's
Natural Resources
Competition for Africa
Conference of Berlin 1884-1885
Colonialism
Germany
Pro-Tutsi policies

Eugenics

Identity Cards
WWII
Post-WWII
Democratization

1948 - UN

Trust Territory

The Mandate
Emancipation Movement

Identity Transition

Manifesto
Massacres
Exodus
3 Decades of Repeated Patterns
Violence

Tutsi Incursions
Tutsi Alliances/Rwandan Patriotic Force (RPF)
1990: RPF Invades
1990-1993: Civil War
Extreme Violence
1993 Peace Agreement
UNAMIR
100 Days of Genocide
April 6th, 1994 to
mid July 1994
Conflict Overview
Expressed Struggle
Interdependence:
Increasingly unhealthy
Perceived Incompatible Goals
: both wanted the same power, influence, and decision making
Scarce Resources
: education, jobs, money, power and influence
Interference
from Others
Colonial Period
Conflict Cycle
Common and Predictable Patterns
Beliefs
: Conflict is Aggressive
Escalatory Spiral
into Explosive Violence
Reciprocity Spiral of
Negative Emotion
(V with V)
Destructive
Issue Proliferation
to Polarization and Destructive Communication
Emotions
Tension between both the Hutu and Tutsi
Anger and Depression spread throughout the country
Many Rwandans felt betrayed and hopeless
Attempted Solutions
Intervene or let it play out?
United Nations Assistance Mission For Rwanda (UNAMIR)
The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)
Human Rights defender, Romeo Dallaire
Village Courts
The Hutu expressed goal was to exterminate the Tutsi

Mapping
The Canadian Museum For Human Rights
Negotiation
Negotiating Tactics:
a little bit of both competitive and collaborative.

Competitive
: Conflict ended when the RPF forced out the Hutu's-their main goal was to get control of Rwanda from the Hutu's
Collaborative
: In order to
equalize power
both Tutsi's and Hutu's are in government- a fair decision that takes into account both parties
common interest.
Re-Education Camp
(Nature of the Conflict & Orientation to the Conflict)
Tutsi Alliances/RPF
1990: RPF Invades

1990-1993: Civil War

Extreme Violence

Styles
The predominant style was competitive
.
The Hutu goal was to exterminate the Tutsi and used the competitive tactics of threats through the radio
The Tutsis goal was to stop the Hutu from killing

Both parties styles remained static, even to this day.

The Hutu resented the Tutsis and blamed them for the death of their president's death. The Tutsi saw the Hutu as violent monsters.

The extermination of the Tutsis was proven to be a planned attack.
The Hutu were given lists of Tutsis to kill.
On the other hand during the genocide the Hutu, who were in power, could kill anyone if the wanted to.
The rules of repetitive patterns are:
Peace-
Hutu and Tutsi once lived together comfortably
Dominance and Revenge-
there is a shift in patterns during the Colonial period

Is the tone of this conflict destructive?
There was an attempt to a
constructive method
, but it evidently failed
Overall, the tone of this conflict is extremely destructive

Coalitions?
The French were now siding with the Hutu


Hutu
Power
Interests and
Goals
Free Entry Next Wednesday, April 1st!

Agreement
Reached?
Compromise?
Win/Lose?
Integrated and Sustainable Solution
Conclusions
Have any of you visited the Museum? What are your impressions of the "Breaking the Silence" Exhibit?
Central Africa & The Great Lakes Region are now fraught with multiple conflicts and instabilities.







What outstanding issues and future issues can you see for this region?
What opinion do you have about roles the international community can play taking into consideration the number of refugees in the camps?
Questions?

Rwandan is presently still in the process of working towards forgiveness and reconciliation

Criminal systems have been put in place in Rwanda
International Criminal Tribunal of Rwanda
Rwanda Court System
Gacaca Courts
In regards to intrapersonal forgiveness, Re-education camps were established
To promote reconciliation, identity cards were removed. Nonetheless, Tutsi hate was predominately prevalent in secondary schools
Twenty-one years later and the genocide hatred still lingers in the hearts of Rwandan's...Rwanda is stuck in a continuous cycle of attempts to forgive the unforgivable
Another of those “African” conflicts

Civil War

Tribal War

Not the “G” word

Now acknowledged as Genocide
Belgium (WWI)
1962: Independence
Comments?
Thanks for Listening!
Clarifying Goals
Hutu wanted to wipe out the Tutsis
Purchased $750,000 of weapons
Worked with other countries
Used radio threats

Tutsis wanted to get back into Rwanda and gain power
Left helpless
Trip Goals
T
opic
:
Power & Revenge
R
elational: Co-Existed Comfortably for
Centuries, Tutsis kept Hutu subservient Colonization, Repeated Patterns
I
dentity: Hutu were peasant farmers, Tutsis
were leaders, identity cards
P
rocess: Balance of Power, Third Party
Interferences, Self-Interests Drove, Destructive media
Distressed System: Power-Emphasized
Designated Power
Situational
Discussed openly on radio and through violence
Destructive
Negative Aspect
Power Currencies (Rice)
R
esource Control: Hutus had quotas over Tutsis for
education and jobs
I
nterpersonal Linkages: Hutu had French backing
them; Tutsis in exile in other countries
C
ommunication Skills: Hutu controlled radio
E
xpertise: French trained and armed Hutu; Tutsis
trained and armed themselves
Shattering Hutu and Tutsi bonds was not easy
Neighbours
The UN disagrees with the power balance and assessment
They do not intervene
The outside world saw the genocide as a civil war or a "tribal conflict"
The Partaker's and Observer's Perspectives of Power
Full transcript