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Transcript of Rwandan Genocide
Forgiveness & Reconciliation
Jan, Lindsay, Émilie, Chanel, and Rachel
Great Lakes Region
Twa (1 %)
The Early Tutsis and Power
The Kingdom of Rwanda
African Exploration - Mid 1800's
Competition for Africa
Conference of Berlin 1884-1885
1948 - UN
3 Decades of Repeated Patterns
Tutsi Alliances/Rwandan Patriotic Force (RPF)
1990: RPF Invades
1990-1993: Civil War
1993 Peace Agreement
100 Days of Genocide
April 6th, 1994 to
mid July 1994
Perceived Incompatible Goals
: both wanted the same power, influence, and decision making
: education, jobs, money, power and influence
Common and Predictable Patterns
: Conflict is Aggressive
into Explosive Violence
Reciprocity Spiral of
(V with V)
to Polarization and Destructive Communication
Tension between both the Hutu and Tutsi
Anger and Depression spread throughout the country
Many Rwandans felt betrayed and hopeless
Intervene or let it play out?
United Nations Assistance Mission For Rwanda (UNAMIR)
The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)
Human Rights defender, Romeo Dallaire
The Hutu expressed goal was to exterminate the Tutsi
The Canadian Museum For Human Rights
a little bit of both competitive and collaborative.
: Conflict ended when the RPF forced out the Hutu's-their main goal was to get control of Rwanda from the Hutu's
: In order to
both Tutsi's and Hutu's are in government- a fair decision that takes into account both parties
(Nature of the Conflict & Orientation to the Conflict)
1990: RPF Invades
1990-1993: Civil War
The predominant style was competitive
The Hutu goal was to exterminate the Tutsi and used the competitive tactics of threats through the radio
The Tutsis goal was to stop the Hutu from killing
Both parties styles remained static, even to this day.
The Hutu resented the Tutsis and blamed them for the death of their president's death. The Tutsi saw the Hutu as violent monsters.
The extermination of the Tutsis was proven to be a planned attack.
The Hutu were given lists of Tutsis to kill.
On the other hand during the genocide the Hutu, who were in power, could kill anyone if the wanted to.
The rules of repetitive patterns are:
Hutu and Tutsi once lived together comfortably
Dominance and Revenge-
there is a shift in patterns during the Colonial period
Is the tone of this conflict destructive?
There was an attempt to a
, but it evidently failed
Overall, the tone of this conflict is extremely destructive
The French were now siding with the Hutu
Free Entry Next Wednesday, April 1st!
Integrated and Sustainable Solution
Have any of you visited the Museum? What are your impressions of the "Breaking the Silence" Exhibit?
Central Africa & The Great Lakes Region are now fraught with multiple conflicts and instabilities.
What outstanding issues and future issues can you see for this region?
What opinion do you have about roles the international community can play taking into consideration the number of refugees in the camps?
Rwandan is presently still in the process of working towards forgiveness and reconciliation
Criminal systems have been put in place in Rwanda
International Criminal Tribunal of Rwanda
Rwanda Court System
In regards to intrapersonal forgiveness, Re-education camps were established
To promote reconciliation, identity cards were removed. Nonetheless, Tutsi hate was predominately prevalent in secondary schools
Twenty-one years later and the genocide hatred still lingers in the hearts of Rwandan's...Rwanda is stuck in a continuous cycle of attempts to forgive the unforgivable
Another of those “African” conflicts
Not the “G” word
Now acknowledged as Genocide
Thanks for Listening!
Hutu wanted to wipe out the Tutsis
Purchased $750,000 of weapons
Worked with other countries
Used radio threats
Tutsis wanted to get back into Rwanda and gain power
Power & Revenge
elational: Co-Existed Comfortably for
Centuries, Tutsis kept Hutu subservient Colonization, Repeated Patterns
dentity: Hutu were peasant farmers, Tutsis
were leaders, identity cards
rocess: Balance of Power, Third Party
Interferences, Self-Interests Drove, Destructive media
Distressed System: Power-Emphasized
Discussed openly on radio and through violence
Power Currencies (Rice)
esource Control: Hutus had quotas over Tutsis for
education and jobs
nterpersonal Linkages: Hutu had French backing
them; Tutsis in exile in other countries
ommunication Skills: Hutu controlled radio
xpertise: French trained and armed Hutu; Tutsis
trained and armed themselves
Shattering Hutu and Tutsi bonds was not easy
The UN disagrees with the power balance and assessment
They do not intervene
The outside world saw the genocide as a civil war or a "tribal conflict"
The Partaker's and Observer's Perspectives of Power