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The Development of Digital Surveillance Methods

A timeline of the major developments in digital surveillance history by Chong Hyeon Jin and Heather Byrne
by

Heather Byrne

on 6 December 2012

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Transcript of The Development of Digital Surveillance Methods

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Images from Shutterstock.com The Development of Surveillance Chong Hyeon Jin and Heather Byrne Telephone Tapping 1844 - first telegraph for commercial
purposes installed between Washington
and Baltimore 1861
Extensive military use of telephone interception used during the Civil War by both armies 1892
New York State declared telephone tapping a felony 1950
Technological improvements: smaller microphones, better amplifiers, and the invention of the transistor 1962
California enacted legislation prohibiting private interception of telegraph messages 1996
It became impossible to detect when a telephone was tapped (no interception noises) 2004
the BBC reported that software capable of activating the microphone on personal cell phones had been used to monitor conversations of uN officials by the CIA and MI5 Today
phone Tapping is done by downloading spyware software onto a person's cellular device. Additionally, phone conversations can be intercepted by spy satellites 1960s
the U.S. Air Force began modifying UAVs for reconnaissance missions.
The result was an AQM-34 Ryan Firebee, modified by adding radar-absorbing blankets and painting anti-radar paint on a Q-2C Firebee.
Test flights proved that Firebee UAVS could provide covert surveillance. 1990-today
Over 60 RQ-1 Predators are in operation under the U.S. Air Force.
Within a 450-mile range, the Predator can provide up to 14 - 16 hours of surveillance via high definition color television, infrared cameras, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). 1898
Magnetic recorders used wire to store information 1935
Magnetic tape invented. This allowed longer recordings and more efficient transcription. 1944
There is much evidence that concealed microphones were used during WWI by intelligence services. 1948
Magnetic tape became a viable and preferable recording option 1949
First bug used against the US found in US base in Prague 2003
Nextel bugs, listening devices placed in cellular phones, became popular 2004
The FBI was approved to use Nextel bugs by the US District Judge Barbara Jones in New York 1994
INDENT, a biometrics collection and processing system for the Immigration and Naturalization Services, was developed by the Department of Homeland Security 2006
Iris on the Move is announced at the Biometrics Consortium Conference. Enables capture of iris images for iris recognition while the subject is moving at a walking pace. Today
CODIS software is currently used in all 50 states and now contains over 10 million DNA profiles 1949
the first commercial CCTV system was installed in the United States 1960s
The UK began installing CCTV systems in public areas 1969
The first public building in the US installs a CCTV system in the New York Municipal Building 1996
uk GOVERNMENT SPENDING ON cctv COMPRISED 75 PERCENT OF THE ENTIRE CRIME PREVENTION BUDGET 1992
President Clinton publicized almost 900,000 satellite images for scientific use Satellites are often used to survey environmental events or disasters 2008
The Department of HOmeland Security began a satellite-suveillance program known as the National Applications Office, designed to observe domestic locations in response to terrorist activites 2009
The National Applications Office was terminated by the Obama Administration in June The NAVSTAR GLOBAL
POSITIONING SYSTEM (OFFICIAL NAME) WAS DESIGNED TO MEET RADIONAVIGATION NEEDS OF MILITARY SERVICES, AND TO PROVIDE A SEPARATE, LESS ACCURATE SIGNAL FOR BOTH MILITARY AND CIVILIAN USE 1993
THE Gps PROGRAM WAS COMPLETED, CONSISTING OF 24 SATELLITES WHICH TRANSMIT RADIO SIGNALS THAT ARE USED TO CALCULATE DISTANCES BETWEEN THE OBJECT AND OTHER SATELLITES TO LOCATE A 3-DIMENSIONAL POSITION ON EARTH THE us MILITARY HAS ACCESS
TO A PRECISE POSITIONING SERVICE, WHICH PROVIDES ACCURACY OF 16 METERS (gps has accuracy of 100 meters) Today
The GPS program is operated primarily by the Air Force 1935
FIRST RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION-TYPE PROJECT DURING wwII utilized a crude and passive radar system to produce the 'Identify Friend or Foe' system 1973
Mario W. Cardullo receives the first US patent for an active RFID tag with reusable memory. Charles Walton received a patent for an RFID tagging system used to unlock a door without a key 1970s
US Government began work on RFID systems, with the first project focused on developing a system for tracking nuclear materials 1990s
An ultra-high frequency RFID tagging system was patented by IBM to offer a more efficient data transfer and a longer range from which the tag could be tracked RFID is a technology well-suited to surveillance:
- Can be interrogated at a (limited) distance
- Does not require line-of-site, but can read through (some) things
- Undetectable by (most) people. 2005
Stapleton-Gray Associates, Inc. is engineering the Sorting Door Project as an experimental test bed for the study of RFID, surveillance and privacy. 2007 - Today
All US passports issued after January 1st 2007 contain an RFID chip to track citizens domestically and overseas 1986
C4.5 decision tree algorithm was difficult to utilize and required extensive data preparation 1989
The term "data Mining" first used by researcher Gregory Piatesky-Shapiro 1990
Over 200 different data mining algorithms available 2001
CAPPS II System (which eventually failed) implemented by the Department of Homeland Security attempted to use data of airline passenger records to root out potential terrorists. 2004
At the federal level, 52 government agencies had launched or planned to begin at least 199 data-mining projects according to a Government Accountability Office study Today
In September 2012, Facebook began working with a data mining company, Datalogix, to monitor what Facebook users buy to measure the effectiveness of marketers' advertising campaigns 2010
Researchers at AT and t Labs and Worcester Polytechnic Institute found tracking technology on 80 percent of popular sites, up from 40 percent in 2005 the Dark Web Project
collects data using cookies from different social networks, blogs, websites, etc. to form a database used for data mining to try and study and understand the international terrorism phenomena Today 1898

Bugging Another form of audio
surveillance that followed phone tapping.
Uses concealed microphones or "bugs". 1994

Biometric Surveillance Biometric Surveillance is
the monitoring of physical or behavioral human characteristics 1940s

CCTV 1940s
CCTV was first used to monitor the testing of missiles in the 1940s in Germany 1960s

Satellites 1960s
During the Eisenhower Administration, Reconnaissance satellites were first used to survey enemy states such as the Soviet Union 1973

GLobal Positioning System (GPS) 1973
GPS is a combination of several satellite navigation systems and concepts developed by and for the u.S. Department of Defense. 1989

Data Mining Data mining is the process of
extracting patterns or relationships from large volumes of raw data to create new knowledge 1883

Aerial Surveillance 1883
Douglas Archibald takes the first successful aerial photographs with a kite. 1994

Cookies and Computer surveillance 1994
Web browser producer Lou Montulli introduces the cookie - a small tracking file that collects data on the computer it is stored on - to improve the online-shopping experience 1973

Radio Frequency Identification
(RFID) RFID systems use tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers send a signal to the tag and read its response, then transmit their observations to a computer system running RFID software. 2009
One study showed that over 50 percent of the sample popular webpages now utilized "flash cookies" or "Local Shared Objects (LSOs): data stored on a user's computer through the utilization of ADobe Flash plugins. 1998
FBI launches Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) software to digitally store, search, and retrieve DNA markers for forensic law enforcement. When GPS satellite signals are not available such as on a phone that does not have a GPS chip, geolocation can be performed using tacking the distance from cell phone towers to calculate the phone's location. this has been used longer than the GPS system. 2009-11
Smartphone Apps such as Apple's "Find My Friends" (2011) and Google's "Latitude" (2009) allow smartphone users to share their location with their friends Today
In July 2012, by request of Representatives Edward Markey and Joe Barton, cell phone companies shared that police had requested location information about their customers over 1.2 million times. 2000s
Geolocation of Cellphones Geolocation
technology involves a GPS-enabled smartphone that uses satellite data to calculate an exact position This timeline was formed through extracting key technological points, and their sub-timelines were analyzed for further information. Surveillance technology will continue to grow, change, and new methods will likely develop The End Today
Man-portable miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being developed. The following picture shows
the data collected by current
phone-tapping spyware Symbol indicating the passport
contains an RFID chip. Surveillance satellite image of a house.. Guess whose??? 1700s

The Panopticon Jeremy Bentham came up with The concept of an individual in a room in the middle of a complex, surveying many people around through small windows. This is a one-way surveillance method where the people surrounding the middle room cannot tell whether they are being observed or not. This creates a state where the people around the middle room must assume they are being surveyed constantly, much like CCTV with CCTV cameras. The Firebee Predator Drone UAV Archibald's Kite Different CCTV Cameras Fingerprint scanner from US VISA program named VISIT Visit the following Website to see how your state is using your phone location data:

http://www.aclu.org/maps/your-local-law-enforcement-tracking-your-cell-phones-location Sup.
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