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The Human Heart/ Coronary Heart Disease

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Regina Mills

on 28 April 2014

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Transcript of The Human Heart/ Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary Artery Disease
By Hareem Masroor
Process #1:
Closer examination of the biological process that occurs within the heart and arteries.


Process #2:
Health Deterioration as well as focusing on symptoms and causes. Look at what happens to the body internally and externally.
Process #3:
Looking over prevention methods as well as treatments.
Objective: How does the Coronary Heart Disease Affect the Normal Function of the Heart?
Process #2
Early Warning Signs
Getting Serious
A heart attack occurs when rich-oxygenated blood doesn't completely reach the heart.
A plaque can rupture blood vessel- blocks area of heart from receiving oxygenated blood + nutrients
Cells located within that area will starve and therefore die, leading to a heart attack ( myocardial infarction MI)
Not Looking Bright
Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia). Inadequate blood supply to the heart or damage done to the heart tissues
will interfere with the electrical impulses of the heart. Resulting to abnormal heart rhythms.
You're Done
Heart failure. If some areas of the heart are continuously deprived of oxygen + nutrients (due to reduced blood flow), or if your heart has been damaged by a heart attack, your heart may become too weak to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This condition is known as heart failure.
REFERENCES:

Canadian Heart and Stroke
Foundation
Mayo Clinic- Coronary Artery Disease
Health BC- Atherosclerosis and C.A.D
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute- What is Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called heart disease, is the narrowing of heart arteries as a result of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is an accumulation of soft masses of fatty materials, particularly cholesterol. Basically this disease is caused by buildup of this plaque in arteries and this blocks the blood flow, heightening the risk of heart attack and stroke. This affects the structure of arteries, which are smooth and elastic, to suddenly become narrow and rigid.

When the heart is starved of oxygenated blood and nutrients, angina (chest pain) occurs. When the artery is completely blocked, a heart attack occurs. A heart attack is medically referred to as a myocardial infarction (MI). The most common form of heart disease/heart attack is CAD, this is a lead killer of
both men and women.
Symptoms:
Fatigue, pain and dizziness.
Angina- squeezing, suffocating or burning feeling in your chest
Burning sensation starts in the center of chest but could travel to your arm, neck, back, throat or jaw.
Women are more likely to experience chest discomfort (vague) .
shortness of breath, weak, lightheaded, nausea or vomiting
burning or pressure beneath the breast bone
Note: Atherosclerosis is usually the result of too much "bad" cholesterol (low density lipoprotein, or LDL) and triglycerides that circulate in the bloodstream. Liver is responsible for maintaining healthy cholesterol.
Prevention Methods
Many times C.A.D occurs due to unhealthy lifestyle factors over winning the healthy factors
Control Blood Pressure
It's good to take a blood pressure measurement at least every two years. The doctor may recommend more frequent measurements if your blood pressure is higher than normal or you have a history of heart disease. The ideal blood pressure is below 120 systolic and 80 diastolic, as measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
Smoking
Smoking is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Nicotine constricts blood vessels and forces your heart to work harder, and carbon monoxide reduces oxygen in your blood and damages the lining of your blood vessels. If you smoke, quitting is one of the best ways to reduce your risk of a heart attack.
Check Your Cholesterol
Take a baseline cholesterol test when you're in your 20s and at least every five years after. If your test results aren't within desirable ranges, your doctor may recommend more-frequent measurements. Most people should aim for an LDL level below 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 3.4 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). If you have other risk factors for heart disease, your target LDL may be below 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L).
Simple Formula:
Healthy Diet
Exercise
Normal Heart
C.A.D Heart
Process #1
Biological Process
Treatment for
Coronary Artery Disease

1.Medical treatment - drugs
3.Coronary Artery Bypass
2.Coronary interventions- angioplasty and coronary stent;

Cholesterol lowering medications:
Dec. low density lipoprotein (LDL "bad" chol.)
Dec. the plaque buildup.

Beta Blockers:
Slow heart rate down + dec. blood pressure
Dec. heart's demand for oxygen
Reduces risk of furter attacks

Nitroglycerin:
Tablets, sprays and patches
Control chest pain- opens coronary arteries
Reduces heart's demand for blood

Catheter inserted into narrow part of artery
Wire with deflated balloon enters narrow area
Balloon is inflated, compresses deposits against artery wall
Involves open-heart surgery, hence it's used for cases such as multiple narrowed coronary arteries.
Surgeon makes a graft to bypass blocked artery
(uses another vessel
from body)
Allows blood to flow around blocked or narrowed artery
Process #3
Full transcript