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The Darker Nations; The People's History of the Third World

The Darker Nations chronicles the rise and fall of the Third World.
by

Atiyyah Evans

on 17 April 2011

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Transcript of The Darker Nations; The People's History of the Third World

Group Members:
Hannah Stewart
Andrew Cheng
Chase Hudgens
Raffieu Jalloh
Atiyyah Evans Summary Author; Vijay United National Antiwar Committee Rally, New York, NY, 2011-04-09 Prashad Part 1 Part 2 Algier

Algiers- is the capital and largest city of Algeria that was ruled by France until 1962. Discrimination and unfair treatment of the Algerians by the French caused conflict that prompted a war for independence.

The war gave birth to the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) and Ben Bella one of it's founders became president of Algeria after Algeria gained independence..

Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella- born December 25, 1918 was a French soldier in the Second World War, who helped form a violent revolutionary organization after the war, and later became the third President of Algeria. Discrimination in his childhood towards Muslims and the massacre on May 8,1945 of thousands of peaceful demonstrators forced him into politics.

Bienos Aries In 1949, Raul Prebisch (former undersecretary of finance in Argentina) wrote and circulated “The Economic Development of Latin America and Its Principal Problems at the UN Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)

Raise the problem, ‘how should overwhelmingly impoverished Third World create economic policies geared toward the development of the totality of its population?

Effects of Colonialism:

*After Centuries of Imperialism, countries like Argentina were left with economies that relied on the sale of raw materials and the import of finished goods

They had to import vast amounts of low priced raw materials, whereas their import bills would be inflated with the high prices commanded by industrially manufactured goods, creating a huge gap in income between Europe and Asia-Africa

*Colonial rule not only impoverished the darker nations but also appropriated wealth to produce a leap forward for US and Europe

Prebisch - Iberian colonialists plundered incalculable amounts of silver, which paid for Spain’s debts along with its imports to other European countries & furnish factories of N. West Europe

This drain of wealth led to distortion of social groups of people of S. America, as led to the development of Europe’s factories

*Prebisch concluded that new(developing) nations needed to move from production of raw materials to that of manufactured goods





*Since Europe and US benefited from colonial rule, they must bear responsibility for it

1st world needs to provide outright grants to 3rd world ‘”reparations”

To ask people of 3rd to sacrifice more toward development would be morally inappropriate

*Prebisch wrote “ the social tensions of our time will often induce us to use an exaggerated proportion of resources in order to improve present consumption levels/to make social investments for immediate welfare, at the expense of economic investments for future welfare

*Basis of trade had to be altered- could not be premised on the idea that some states r naturally good at being harvesters of low value raw materials & others naturally proficient at being producers of high value products

In 1817, david ricardo proposed the idea of ‘comparative advantage’ saying that a country should specialize in the production of what it can do best/ a country should try not to stimulate industry artificially, rather it should simply follow ‘the peculiar powers bestowed by nature’

Ex: US grows corn, France cultivates vines, England proficient in the manufacture of industrially produced goods; however-

Q: Was england always the blessed isle of hardware, or were the mercantilist policies and colonial extractions responsible for the creation of England’s advantages?

Prebisch rejected “Comparative Advantage” because he demonstrated that each region of the world could enjoy the fruits of modernity as much as others, and the theory stifles economic development

*The import of manufactured goods and the export of cheap raw materials will continue to drain capital and fail to enable the conduct of technological improvements toward socioeconomic development, cycle of dependency would intensity rather than break

*After the 1950’s, Prebisch realized that an acceleration of the rate of growth in production would not solve their problems, but alongside that the growth needed was changes in the social structure, or a complete social transformation







Tehran

(Background Info)

After the nationalist government of Iran was overthrown in 1953, the Tudeh was formed, which basically defended Iran’s sovereignty from American influence. They were associated with the communist party, and were a threat to the U.S.’s establishment in Iran. Mosaddeq, the ruler at the time feared communist rule and the upper hand of the U.S., who was threatened by the Tudeh, consequently many of its member went underground, were incarcerated, or moved to Europe where they reconstituted. The remaining Tudeh, who were intellectuals and cultural workers who had been motivated by anticolonialism, antimonarchism, and the militancy of certain groups who suffered from cultural suffocation wrote manifestos and poems, short stories and diatribes, emphasizing liberty and social justice from social hierarchy and longed for the space for freedom of expression and the soul

Following election as a municipal councilor, Ben Bella founded an underground organization pledged to fight colonial rule, which he named the Organisation Spéciale. Ben Bella believed other revolutionary groups at the time were to soft so the Organisation Spéciale was based on radical beliefs .This was the immediate predecessor of the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN)

The FLN was formed by eight different revolutionary groups who all believed that freedom could only be gained by being radicals It was set up on November 1, 1954 to obtain independence for Algeria from France,At first it was and underground group.However with the defeat of the French at The battle of Dein Phu an Indo-China war, the FLN strengthen there belief that they could also take down the french and began the war.

The French did not want to give up Algeria, therefore with the rise of the FLN the French imposed harsher living conditions. However all this did was force the FLN to gain even more supporters.Although some did not believe the FLN tactics were right they saw the FLN as the only way to gain Independence from the French.The FLN gained major supporters such as Castro and Frantz Fanon.

Frantz Fanon- was as a philosopher, revolutionary and writer whose work is influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory and Marxism. Fanon is known as a radical due to his views on the issue of decolonization,Fanon supported the Algerian struggle for independence and became a member of the FLN after viewing the discrimination that his people faced all the time he even was quoted saying "I owe it to myself to affirm that the Arab,permanently an alien in his own country"

The FLN adopted tactics similar to those of nationalist groups in Asia, and the French did not realize the seriousness of the challenge they faced until 1955, when the FLN moved into urbanized areas and took to attacking anything that had to do with France.

Battle of Algiers,began on September 30, 1956, when three women, simultaneously placed bombs at three sites including a downtown office of Air France. The FLN carried out an average of 800 shootings and bombings per month through the spring of 1957

As the FLN gained more power and moved closer to independence, they faced there biggest problem, how would they run there own government. This subject created a lot of division in the tight knit group.

After Algeria's independence was recognized, Ahmed Ben Bella quickly became more popular ,and thereby more powerful. In June 1962, he challenged the leadership of fellow FLN member Benyoucef Ben Khedda; this led to several disputes among his rivals in the FLN,which were quickly suppressed by Ben Bella's rapidly growing support.and the support of Houari Boumédiènne the military head officer.

In November, after becoming president Ben Bella's government constitution banned all other political partys, and named the FLN as the only party allowed to function. Shortly thereafter in 1965 Bella was removed from office and placed under house arrest (and later exiled) by Houari Boumédiènne,because certain members of the FLN believed he was not advancing the country and the divide between rich and poor was still growing. Houari Boumédiènne served as president until his death in 1978. Algeria remained stable, though in a one-party state, until violent civil war broke out in the 1990s.Due to the military run government spending way more on continuing operations rather than social welfare of the people.

La Paz
La Paz-is the administrative capital of Bolivia, and was founded in 1548 by the Spanish conquistadors.

La Paz was very important to the developed countries due to their resources such as sliver and tin. Both of which America and the Europeans nation had an interest in.
René Barrientos Ortuño a Bolivian politician who served as his country's Vice President in 1964 and as its President from 1964 to 1969. General Barrientos came to power by overthrowing the democratic elected government of Paz Estenssoro in a CIA backed coup. During his five-year rule, Barrientos and the army suppressed all opposition to his conservative regime, and set up the MNR as the countrys leading political party Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (MNR) is Bolivia's oldest currently registered political party and the most influential of Bolivian history it was founded in 1942 and is still around today. The MNR was influenced by corporatist, populist, and fascist movements of the 1930s,and became the key ingredient of modern Bolivian nationalism.

1951 the MNR won a key election and began to implement reforms such as suffrage to both women and men,literate and illiterates.This had a major impact because during the 1951 election only 6.6% of the population participated but by 1956 this number rose to 30%.

The MNR owed it success to two social classe in La Paz, The miners and the campesinos. and with reforms such as the nationalization of the Tin mines and Land reforms citizens saw the MNR as a voice for the people.

1953 the MNR enacted an extensive reform on land distribution, the MNR confiscated large sections of land from wealthy owners who controlled 92% of the land at the time but only used 1.5% of the land for cultivation. The MNR gave to the land to peasant however the officials who controlled the land reforms were not educated on the subject and largely gave the peasant sub standard pieces of land.


1957 the MNR was considering dismantling there army due to rising cost,although the USA had decided to stay neutral they soon realized that without the Military the young government of La Paz would succumb to anarchy. Therefore in 1961 President Kennedy provided 20 billion to central and south American states for economic development and military assistance.During this time with the assistance of USA officials many other central and south American countries witnessed an increase in military coups. Although many thought the USA was doing a noble thing there real intention was to build relationships with future dictators for political gain and get the country natural resources.

Mohamed Suharto for example was a USA backed dictator in Indonesian after a decade in power he fled leaving the country with a national debt of 5 billion,and accusation by the treasury that he had stolen more than 35 billion of the country money,Most of which he deposited in his and relatives Swiss bank accounts.

Although many developed countries came to the aid of the third world, many came for political/ natural resource reasons.During this period developed nations caused more harm than good as many of these military back government abused there power and in some cases to the country in the opposite direction.




Bali

Bali is an Indonesian island located in the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands,it is one of the country's 33 provinces with the provincial capital at Denpasar towards the south of the island.

Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 September 23, 1973) the pen name and, later, legal name of the Chilean poet and politician Neftalí Ricardo Reyes Basoalto. Neruda was trusted into politics and comminusim by the brutal executions of civilians by the forces loyal to the Spanish dictator Franco. His poems which open up the chapter became increasingly loyal to the ideals of communism. Thses writing would later get him exiled as war broke out and Sukarno rose to power.

Sukarno was Indonesia's first President from 1945 to 1967.He rise and fall from power came with the blood of over two million communist and followers. He believed that the three main resources to Indonesian freedom was cooperation between Islam,Marxism,and nationalism.

These views propmted the creation of NASAKOM a political concept during his presidency in Indonesia. It is an acronym based on the Indonesian words NASionalisme ('nationalism'), Agama ('religion'), and KOMunisme ('communism').

1956, Sukarno was openly criticizing parliamentary democracy, stating that it was "based upon inherent conflict" which ran counter to Indonesian notions of harmony, being the natural state of human relationships. Instead, he sought a system based on the traditional village system of discussion and consensus, under the guidance of village elders an a cabinet representing all the political parties of importance (A move that would bring the PKI to the forefront of change)

PKI- Communist Party of Indonesins was the largest non-ruling communist party in the world. An was founded 1920.

Dipa Nusantara Aidit (July 30, 1923 November 22, 1965 a senior leader of the (PKI). submitted to Sukarno's government policy and allowed the party to grow without any intentions towards power. In return for his support of Sukarno, he rose to the position of Secretary-General of the PKI. By 1965, the PKI had become the largest political party in Indonesia, and Aidit began seeking political power.

After the attempted coup on 30 September, 1965, which general suharto planned and officially blamed on the PKI to transition himself into power. Aidit was on the run however he was captured and shot by government forces led by General Suharto during the bloody 1965/66 anti-communist purge were many citizen remember the street and river running red with blood Suharto took control of the government and isolated them from the UN untill 1966.

During this time many third worlds such as Iraq saw the rise of communist based parties, and deal were made to benefit political goals, the USA was even identified as the key informant in many of the coups that took place. US leaders such as Bill Krieg have even been quoted stating that communist could work hard,knew were they wanted to go,and were honest/committed while there successors were bums who wanted nothing but money.However this was the tragedy the only people committed to hard work were our worst enemy's.The CIA crushed the left but later found they created monster they could not control. A Jalal Al-e Ahmad was in the Tudeh, was an outspoken critic of the monarchy and earned leadership

He produced numerous short stories that countered the corruption and ruthlessness of the monarchy with simple wisdom of folklore and the forgotten people of Iran

Imperialism weakened the organic relationship between customs and traditions which were not taught in schools or culturally purveyed

Al-e Ahmad proposed the need for a cultural revolution like the Enlightenment for the nations of the third world in order to advance and attain industry and to eliminate the problem that the people of the “east” continue to see themselves as lesser than the “west”

The high walls of privilege and power make some cultures appear dead

A civilization needs to feel alive and it is this subjective liveliness that gives it th power to leave behind the past

–these colonized societies achieve this only through a major social upheaval such as an anticolonial struggle

3rd world rejected the idea of nationalism that emerged from Europe’s history, where the bourgeosies constructed boundaries around common cultural markers such as language, history, and race

adopted the idea of Multiplicity, “Unity in Diversity”, promoting cultural hybridity

the multinationalistic state would need to evoke this historical dynamic of fellowship and produce it through the adoption of an official policy in religion (secularism), racialism (antiracism), and language (multilanguagism)
However to achieve multinationalism proves difficult because every country has a majoritarian cast

· It would be easy for them to ask for the suspension of identity when theirs is typically ingrained into the culture of the nation

· To produce the ethos of multinationalism, the nation state had to assemble a history and an aesthetic

· The people had to study and reinterpret the historical archives created by the colonizers and broadcast them

· These canons had to include the cultural practices and hopes of all the communities within a nation

· At UNESCO’s conference in 1945, the delegates agreed, “no longer must our children be taught to think in terms of the glory of their own country; they must think of their country as being no more than an unit in and dedicated to the service of the larger whole of a world state

Motivation had to be “age old tradition of tolerance and universality” whose purpose would be to “enrich their own culture and promote world peace and understanding”

o One way was to translate books both classical and modern into every language

o To raise cultural and political literacy, education to raise literacy had to be provided to make up for the nations’ lack of opportunity

o 1965 Tehran hosted the World Conference of Ministers of Education on the Eradication of Literacy, and with the funding and campaigning from UNESCO, literacy was dramatically reduced across the planet

1950 2/3 men ¼ women could read, 1995 80% men and 70% women could read




Belgrade



After WWII, the big three (Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill) conspiring the partition of Europe, and were consolidating their ‘spheres of influence’



‘Peaceful co-existence’ would be the main concept for organization of states in a nuclear world and was understood as a term for those countries that were unwilling to join one or the other of the superpowers.



In 1956, Tito, a Yugoslav revolutionary hosted a conference in Belgrade (modern day Serbia, former part of Yugoslavia) inviting Nasser (Egypt’s 2nd President) and Nehru (India’s 1st Prime Minister) discussing international developments forming NAM (Non-Aligned Movement)

Distrust over the behavior of the Red Army and a lack of support over the U.S.-UK invasion of Trieste (1945) drew the following assessment from Tito: “We have no wish to be dependent on anyone. We do not want to be small change; we do not want to be involved in any policy of spheres of influence.”



Tito -Wanted to test the waters for some non-superpower alliance, extending help and arms to facilitate a relationship with the Darker Nations, like Egypt, Burma, and Algeria



Egypt, Yugoslavia, and India were torn between U.S. and Soviet powers.

To eliminate fears of invasion and to lessen tension, the three powers of that would found NAM welcomed representatives from 22 states from Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Europe who did not want to side with the Soviets nor the Atlantic Powers.



After hearing the possibility of another war (The Cold War), NAM pushed the United Nations to alter its structure in the spirit of justice and not charity, and that they expand to include the darker nations to aid in the prevention of another war between the Soviets. Few were able to join, but the third world was nonetheless provided a forum to raise issues of colonial barbarity and previously hidden atrocities before the world



NAM’s best achievements was their aid in the liberation of Angola and Mozambique from Portugal, making a pledge to “offer every type of support to the freedom fighters in territories under Portuguese Colonialism”



Their principle strategic thrust was to democratize the United Nations and to wake up the assembly; Che Guevara, “Imperialism wants to convert this meeting into a useless oratorical tournament instead of solving the serious problems of the world… As Marxists we maintain that peaceful co-existence does not indclude co-existence between exploiters and the exploited, oppressors and the oppressed”



Havana

Between 1900 and 1933, The US intervened in the self- liberation efforts of the people of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama multiple times, often times providing arms to the forces opposing liberation,



In fear of armed intervention from the United States during their Revolution, Cuba went to Moscow, who pledged that the USSR “would use all means at its disposal to prevent armed intervention by the U.S.”



The Soviets however, could not do anything to deter the US military in Vietnam, and the US administration had given the green light for coups in Brazil, Greece, the Congo, Bolivia, and Indonesia. For Castro, part of the problem lay in the new doctrine adopted by the Third World, peaceful co-existence for some and war for others. In this period armed struggle was revived as a tactic of anticolonialsim and a strategy in itself.



In 1966, The First Solidarity Conference of the Peoples of Africa, Asia, and Latin America (The Tri-Continental) was held in Havana. It drew together national liberation regimes and movements from all three continents and discussed the issue of militancy to challenge imperialism through small acts of revolutionary violence or terrorism vs. peaceful co-existence.



The nations of the Thirld World became impatient with the U.S., and had lost their faith in them as they believed the U.S’s ideals had been compromised.



After liberation efforts in Algeria, ‘Portuguese Africa’ (Mozambique, Angola, and Cabo Verde) Bolivia, etc. it was realized that there is not and can not be national liberation without the use of liberating violence by the nationalist forces, to answer the criminal violence of the agents of imperialism. The Tricontinental neither went out of its way to promote this, nor condemn it outright. However it did support ongoing wars, because Imperialists do not listen to the struggles of exploited people, who must resort to the most energetic forms of struggle to achieve final victory.



Part 2 B Tawang; Tawang district is one of the 16 administrative districts of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India.
The Sino-Indian War also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962. A disputed Himalayan border was the main pretext for war, but other issues played a role.





· The cause of the war was a dispute over the sovereignty of the widely-separated Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh border regions



The PLA launched simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line on 20 October 1962, coinciding with the Cuban Missile Crisis. Chinese troops advanced over Indian forces in both theatres, capturing Rezang la in Chushul in the western theatre, as well as Tawang in the eastern theatre. The war ended when the Chinese declared a ceasefire on 20 November 1962, and simultaneously announced its withdrawal from the disputed area.





· The PLA is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927

China and India share a long border, sectioned into three stretches by Nepal and Bhutan, which follows the Himalayan Mountains between Burma and what was then West Pakistan. A number of disputed regions lie along this border. At its western end is the Aksai Chin region, an area the size of Switzerland, that sits between the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang and Tibet (which China declared as an autonomous region in 1965). The eastern border, between Burma and Bhutan, comprises the present Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh (formerly the North East Frontier Agency). Both of these regions were overrun by China in the 1962 conflict.
Caracas officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela



· By the end of 1918, petroleum appeared for the first time on the Venezuelan export statistics at 21,194 metric tons.





· After about twenty years from the installment of the first oil drill, Venezuela had become the largest oil exporter in the world and the second largest oil producer, after the United States. Exportation of oil boomed from 1.9% to 91.2% between 1920 and 1935



When oil was discovered at the Maracaibo strike in 1922, Venezuela's dictator Juan Vicente Gómez allowed Americans to write Venezuela's petroleum law.



· Many people felt that the money from the oil should be used to develop the Country and workers went on strike.



· Arturo Uslar Pietri was a Venezuelan intellectual, lawyer, journalist, writer, television producer and politician.



· Pietri stood up to the big oil companies that he felt were taking over his country



· He served as Venezuela’s minister of education (1939-41), finance minister (1943), foreign minister (1945), and as a senator from Caracas (1958-73).



The "Seven Sisters" was a term coined in the 1950s by Italian businessman Enrico Mattei to describe the seven oil companies which formed the "Consortium for Iran" and dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s. The group comprised Standard Oil of New Jersey and Standard Oil Company of New York (now ExxonMobil); Standard Oil of California, Gulf Oil and Texaco (now Chevron); Royal Dutch Shell; and Anglo-Persian Oil Company (now BP).



· The seven sisters made 828 million in Venezuela in 1957.



· In 1973 the members of the Seven Sisters controlled 85% of the world's petroleum reserves.

There was a fight over who controlled the oil and The fact that the regimes that ruled over the oil land could have used rent paid by oil companies to increase social wage, expand public education, health, transportation and other advancements for the people.



· Marcos Evangelista Perez Jimenez (25 April 1914 20 September 2001) was a soldier and President of Venezuela from 1952 to 1958.



· During his presidency government spending on education and health was slashed, and the earnings from oil sales were diverted into lavish, costly and often superfluous construction projects.



His tolerant attitude toward foreign oil companies gained him the backing of the United States.

· Juan Pablo Perez Alfonso (13 December 1903 – 3 September 1979), was a prominent Venezuelan diplomat, politician and lawyer primarily responsible for the inception and creation of OPEC.



· Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was created in response to the 1959 imposition of import quotas on crude oil and refined products by the United States.



· Its purpose is to ensure the stabilization of prices in international oil markets among developing countries.



Arusha



· Arusha is a city in northern Tanzania (Country in East Africa). It is the capital of the Arusha Region and has a population of 1,288,088 (2002 census). Arusha is surrounded by some of Africa's most famous landscapes and national parks.



· In 1967 the Tanzanian president Julius Nyerere dropped a bombshell in a nondescript town that functioned as the gateway to eastern Africa’s most spectacular natural phenomenon.

Julius Kambarage Nyerere (13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian politician who served as the first President of Tanzania and previously Tanganyika, from the country's founding in 1961 until his retirement in 1985.





· The Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) was the principal political party in the struggle for sovereignty in the East African state of Tanganyika (now Tanzania). The party was formed from the Tanganyika African Association by Julius Kambarage Nyerere in July 1954 while he was still teaching at St. Francis' College



· The policy of TANU was to build and maintain a socialist state aiming towards economic self-sufficiency and to eradicate corruption and exploitation, with the major means of production and exchange under the control of the peasants and workers (Ujamaa-Essays on Socialism; "The Arusha Declaration")

Arusha declaration was made by Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere on 5 February 1967, outlining the principles of Ujamaa (Nyerere's vision of socialism) to develop the nation's economy.



· The declaration called for an overhaul of the economic system, through African socialism and self-reliance in locally administered villages through a villagization program.

Despite its intentions, the Declaration did not generate the expected development and in fact increased bribery and collection as state monopolies, created by the nationalization of the economy, grew more powerful. By the early 1970s, many Tanzanian farmers resisted the seizure of their lands by government cooperatives. When Operation Dodoma in 1974 called for the collectivization of all farming in the country, many of the farmers resisted. The Arusha Declaration was abandoned by the Tanzanian government in 1975. B Paris’ two betrayals

o Napoleon Bonaparte sent General Victor Leclerc to defeat the Haitian revolution, which ironically, was inspired by the French revolution. The French could not afford to let Santo Domingo go free, and also did not want Haitians living inside the realm of Enlightenment. In the end, the Haitians defeat the French and become the first modern colony to win their independence

After 1945, a weakened France just liberated by the Allies attempted to suppress the Vietnamese, West Indians, and Africans who used to be their colonial subjects. France failed and instead tried to maintain sovereignty over its colonies by renaming them as “overseas territories.” This failed also, as the people of those colonies were too hungry for liberation
Discourse on Colonialism by Aime Cesaire

o Written in 1955 by a Martinique-born philosopher and former Communist activist

o Main purpose of book was to expose the brutality of European colonialism

o Vietnam, Madagascar, West Africa, the West Indies, and elsewhere were brutally colonized by the Europeans

o French troops attempt to stop a liberation in 1945-46 by the Vietnamese. After a decade of war, the poorly equipped Vietnamese overthrow the French troops

o In 1945, the French used air force to disband the anticolonial Algerians by killing tens of thousands of them. This massacre initiated the formation of the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) to counter French colonialism

Madagascar wanted liberation in 1947 with their freedom movement, Mouvement Democratique de la Renovation Malagache. French forces responded with violence and killed tens of thousands of them. After a decade of fighting, the French conceded some power back to them

· Important Terms

o First World another term for the “West,” mainly consisting of the United States and Western Europe. First world countries pledge to partly regulated market capitalism and form NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

o Second World rejection of market capitalism for socialist planning is the main differentiation from first and second world countries. These include Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest, Sofia, and the USSR (which was the largest socialist nation)

Third World “poor, overly fecund, profligate, and worthless” was how first world countries view third world countries. Third world countries can be loosely defined as any country outside of Europe and the United States

o Iron Curtain a division in Europe, from the Baltic to the Adriatic

o Cold War the East-West conflict between the United States and the USSR, mainly involving nuclear threats
Brussels

· The Exploitation of Africa

o Belgium was well known for their textiles, lace, and glassware, but their main source of wealth came from Africa, particularly the Congo, boosting their economy to become the sixth largest in the world (following Great Britain, The United States, Germany, France, and Holland)

o Leopold II founded the Comite des Etudes du Haut Congo, which was a private firm that went into central Africa to look for resources and profits. Through European colonialism, Leopold II possessed an area in the Congo, which is thirty times the size of Belgium.

o Many nations weren’t happy with how Belgium profited so much from a third world country when that money could have went into their own economy, so a bill passed in congress at Brussels to allow third world countries to govern themselves

Bandung

· A third world country inside of Java

o The city of Bandung had been under British colonial rule for over three-hundred years. Millions of workers protested in 1946 for their independence, but Britain showed no signs of backing down. Instead, half a million residents left Bandung and set fire to everything in their path.

o Bandung repopulated by 1955, mostly by poor immigrants who had been displaced from a rebellion by Darul Islam. This essentially made Bandung a third world country. The people who formerly left came back to help rebuild it since it was a free nation.



Cairo

· Born fighters

o Different from Bandung, the people of Cairo did not want to spend years protesting and revolting. Instead, they wanted to take on the first world colonialism by force, through rhetoric and guns.

o In 1952, the Egyptian army seized power of the nation and pushed out the corruption from European colonialism

· The liberation of women

o The success of liberation for countries sparked an interest for the freedom and liberation of women

o Women played a vital part in these liberations and were often on the short end of the stick, many times sacrificing their lives for a cause they won’t benefit from

o The Commission on the Status of Women was formed in 1947 to “raise the status of men irrespective of nationality, race, language, or religion to equality

Part 3 "In the 1980s, the "third world" was seen as failed states and famine, poverty and hopelessness. The places seemed to have come "third" if not last in the great race for progress. That was the broad tenor of the discourse on the post-colonial period. I found this tendentious. It meant that these places were fated to failure, and therefore to charity. The condescension erased the history of struggle and defeat. I am interested, partly, in looking at the richer history of the epoch, to uncover the struggles and their ideologies."

The Darker Nations is a critical historiography of the Third World. Vijay Prashad's deeply instructive as well as occasionally mordant looks at events and processes that made up the history of oppressed peoples in the 20th century comprise this brilliant work. It is a book profound for being peremptory, and absolutely necessary for being so relevant today that it is imperative for activists and researchers alike. Part 1 A
The Quest Trip to(Paris, Brussels, Bandung, Cairo, Buenos Aires, Tehran, Belgrade, and Havana) Part 2 A:The pitfalls Trip to (Algiers, La Paz, Bali, Tawang, Caracas, and Arusha); Part 3: The "assassinations" of the project. Trip to (New Delhi, Kingston, Singapore, Mecca). The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either capitalism and NATO (which along with its allies represented the First World), or communism and the Soviet Union (which along with its allies represented the Second World). This definition provided a way of broadly categorizing the nations of the Earth into three groups based on social, political, and economic divisions. By the late 1970s, many Third World countries had abandoned democratic traditions; and single-party authoritarian regimes, often formed on sectarian bases, became the norm. Military coups, often supported by former colonial powers or the US, ravaged country after country in all three liberated continents – take merely the examples of Chile, Pakistan and Nigeria. Women’s liberation gave way to machismo and, in some parts, to religious bigotry.
Assassinations’, looks at the external factors that pulled the Third World project to failure. These problems had been anticipated by Fanon. He was at pains to urge the Third World to keep to the path of liberation. Noting the changing mood of Third World leaders, he points out, ‘as soon as independence is declared, far from embodying in concrete the needs of the people … the leader will reveal his inner purpose: to become the general president of that company of profiteers impatience for their returns.’ Fanon’s words ring true today across many of the countries of the Third World. from 1945 to the end of the 20th century the US attempted to overthrow more than 40 foreign governments. The Third World project, which aspired to a larger regional and global role for the peoples of the Third World, was systematically ‘assassinated’. With Third World leaders out of the way the Third World project faltered. Former colonial masters found and placed leaders of, to quote Prashad, ‘Profiteers Inc’ at the head of Third World countries. It was political, cultural and economic inequality that gave rise to the Third World project. These conditions, in modified form, persist today. Thus, the seeds for the revival of the Third World project persist – quote from Vijay Prashad
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