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Psychological Disorders

Anxiety disorders, Somatoform disorders, Dissociative disorders, Mood disorders, Personality disorders, Schizophrenia
by

Rebecca Carlson

on 22 October 2012

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Transcript of Psychological Disorders

5 Anxiety Disorders Psychological Disorders Anxiety Disorders Dissociative Disorders Mood Disorders Personality Disorders Schizophrenia Anxiety disorders are a combination of fear, apprehension, and worry Disorders differ from a normal feeling of anxiety in a stressful situation because the symptoms last longer and worsen if not treated Treated with medication and psychotherapy Antidepressants are effective. SSRIs and tricyclics are the most commonly prescribed. Anti-anxiety drugs are sometimes used, but because they can become addictive they are only prescribed for a short time. The exception is for the treatment of panic attacks. Cognitive Behavioral therapy works to change the way a person thinks about and reacts to anxiety-provoking stimuli to reduce anxiety Generalized Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorder Phobias Post Traumatic
Stress Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive
Disorder Dissociative Fugue Dissociative
Identity Disorder Dissociative Amnesia Major Depression Bipolar
Dsiorder Dysthymic
Disorder Seasonal
Affective Disorder Constant anxiety about everyday things no identifiable cause People with mild GAD are generally able to function socially but if severe the anxiety disrupts their ability to carry out daily activities People with GAD may find it hard to relax or concentrate. They may startle easily. physical symptoms: fatigue nausea headaches muscle tension and aches trembling twitching lightheadedness feeling out of breath GAD Persistent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and the need to engage in a particular action (compulsions) Obsessions cause anxiety, compulsions relieve anxiety Rare but possible for streptococcus to cause OCD in children. The body confuses healthy cells with infectious cells and the body attacks nerve cells in the brain. Results in OCD Can be reversed if treated Serotonin involved- could be a problem with serotonin itself, another chemical impairing it, or a malfunction of serotonin receptors in the brain Brain scans show that people with OCD have brain abnormalities, especially in the orbital cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus

abnormalities suggest that these areas are not communicating properly, a dysfunction that results in OCD symptoms when a person experiences anxiety Could be genetic- OCD runs in families OCD Somatoform Disorders Sudden attacks of intense anxiety Can occur at any time, even during sleep Usually last 10 minutes, but can last longer A fear of having a panic attack is a symptom of panic disorder. They dread and worry about having a panic attack About 6 million American adults have panic disorder. More common in women than men. It becomes disabling when people do not seek treatment and the fear of having a panic attacks leads them to avoid situations, places, people. If this fear/avoidance becomes severe, it is called agoraphobia (fear of open spaces) Physical symptoms: A pounding heart Sweatiness weakness faintness dizziness nausea chest pain smothering sensation Panic Disorder Intense, irrational fear about a particular thing that poses no real danger Acrophobia: fear of heights claustrophobia: fear of enclosed spaces Ophidiophobia:
fear of snakes Arachnophobia:
fear of spiders Mysophobia:
fear of germs/being
contaminated with germs Exposure therapy: based on the idea that a phobic fear is a reflex to non-dangerous stimuli. Patients are exposed to the anxiety-causing stimulus until they anxiety is extinguished Systematic Desensitization: A step-by-step process for gradually reducing fear
patient learns to relax
makes an anxiety hierarchy of stimuli, least anxiety-provoking to most
counter-conditioning to train the patient to relax in response to anxiety-provoking stimuli Occurs after a person has seen or experienced a traumatic event Can develop at any age Traumatic events that
lead to PTSD include: natural disaster assault domestic abuse rape terrorism Cause is unknown, nor why some people develop it and others do not Psychological, physical, social, and genetic factors involved in the development of PTSD 3 Main categories of symptoms Reliving: nightmares, flashbacks, upsetting memories of event Avoidance: unable to remember details of event, avoid places, people or thoughts that remind of event Arousal: difficulty concentrating, irritable, anger outbursts, startling easily, insomnia/other sleep problems Behind all dissociative disorders is some sort of disruption in the conscious process Three dissociative disorders are:
dissociative amnesia
dissociative identity disorder
dissociative fugue Symptoms common to all dissociative disorders: Memory loss of certain time periods, events, and people Mental health problems A sense of being detached from oneself Perception of people and things around you as being unreal Blurred sense of identity Formerly called multiple personality disorder DID is where a person has several distinct personalities No limit to the number of personalities a person can have. The average is 10 May be unable to remember events that happened when another identity (alter) was in control and may not be aware of other alters People with DID often complain of amnesia Different personalities are unique, have different names, mannerisms, personalities, histories. May vary in handedness, need for corrective glasses, or gender orientation People with DID often have a history of childhood trauma the theory is that separate identities are created as way to cope with this trauma Treated with psychotherapy The therapist tries to contact as many personalities as possible. They want to identify alters with aggressive and self-destructive behaviors and those with memories of traumatic events in the person's past Goal of therapy is to unify the different personalities into one Dissociative
Identity Disorder Occurs when a person blocks out information associated with a stressful or traumatic event the person is unable to remember important personal information Different from organic amnesia, where information is lost from memory because memories aren't lost, they just can't be recalled except when triggered by something in the person's environment Caused by overwhelming stress from a traumatic event Could be genetic link because it runs in families Treatment aimed at allowing the person to express and process painful memories through psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, or creative therapy (art or music) A person with dissociative fugue forgets who they are and finds themselves in an unfamiliar place with no idea how they got there Sometimes they adopt a new identity in a new place An episode can last for a few hours to several months Fugue ends as abruptly as it begins. The person may have no recollection of what happened during the fugue or how they got where they are Cause is linked to extreme stress Treated with some type of psychotherapy or cognitive therapy to help the person cope with the stress or traumatic event that caused the disorder Histironic Narcissistic Antisocial
Personaltiy Disorder Dependent Paranoid Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Conversion Disorder Hypochondriasis A person will complain of frequent physical ailments but there is nothing wrong with them Unrealistic fear of having a serious disease Belief that any symptom, even minor ones, are a sign of serious illness. They might think that a headache is a sign that they have a brain tumor Visit a doctor often, seek advice from friends/family. Want reassurance that they do not have a serious illness. This temporarily relieves anxiety Antidepressants (SSRIs) can reduce worry and physical symptoms associated with hypochondria Psychotherapy is an effective treatment for both disorders A person will report and have a severe physical problem but a physiological cause cannot be found Many people will become blind after witnessing a traumatic event Loss of one or more bodily functions: blindness numbness inability to speak paralysis symptoms appear suddenly after a traumatic event For conversion disorder: Occupational therapy may be needed to decrease symptoms/ prevent muscle wasting from limbs not being used Somatoform disorders are psychological disorders that manifest as physical problems Treatment options: For hypochondria: Cognitive behavioral therapy can help a patient recognize what makes their symptoms worse and how to cope with the symptoms A depression that last for 2 weeks+ with no clear reason A feeling of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration People usually have a negative outlook on life symptoms: Fatigue Loss of appetite changes in sleeping patterns loss of interest sense of worthlessness Believed to be caused by a chemical change in the brain due to a combination of genes and stressful events Treated with: antidepressants (SSRIs and Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors) and psychotherapy Mild depression that lasts for at least 2 years Same symptoms as depression but less severe Antidepressants are not very effective, but psychotherapy is Cognitive behavioral therapy is one treatment option. It teaches how to correct negative thoughts and cope with depression Bouts of depression alternate with bouts of mania No clear cause for manic or depressive episodes usually develops between ages 15-25 Manic phase can last for days to months Symptoms of manic phase: Easily distracted little need for sleep poor judgment poor temper control reckless behavior, lack of self control very elevated mood very agitated or irritable Treatment options: Mood stabilizers anti-seizure drugs antipsychotic and anti-anxiety medication antidepressants Electroconvulsive Therapy: electrical current is sent through the brain to trigger a seizure. changes brain chemistry and immediately reverses symptoms of disorder TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation): High-frequency magnetic pulses target affected areas of the brain. Bipolar disorder can reoccur even with treatment. The goal of treatment is to make the disorder manageable and reduce symptoms as much as possible Bipolar
Dsiorder Major Depression Same symptoms as other forms of depression Symptoms build up slowly starting in August Depression that lasts only during winter months Believed that lack of sunlight during winter causes depression Light therapy is recommended. The person is exposed to light that mimics the sun Can be treated with antidepressants and psychotherapy Personality disorders are well-established, maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively affect people's ability to function Personality is a combination of thoughts, emotions and behaviors Personality shaped through interaction of genes and the environment Disorders thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental influences. Some people have a predisposition to developing a disorder and environmental triggers cause it to develop Lack of conscious Have trouble feeling empathy, have no problem hurting or lying Often break the law Manipulate others, display aggressive or violent behavior Intensity of symptoms peak in their 20s and decline with age Hard to treat People need long-term care Psychotherapy (treating the condition by talking about it with a therapist) If severe, psychiatric hospitalization is recommended medication used to relieve symptoms Attention-seeking, need to be center of attention Easily influenced by others Overly dramatic and emotional Overly concerned with looks Acting/looking overly seductive sexual forwardness Medication may help,
but psychotherapy is
the best treatment Disorder can negatively affect relationships Rely heavily on others Difficulty making everyday decisions, need advice and reassurance Seem "clingy" Fear they can't live without help of others Pessimistic, doubtful of themselves, belittle themselves Fear being left alone Need nurturing and support from others symptoms decrease in intensity with age Cause is likely due to biological, psychological, and social factors Treated with long-term psychotherapy and medication for specific symptoms Exaggerating one's own importance, more important than others Unrealistic fantasies about success, beauty, intelligence self-centered lack of empathy cocky, manipulative, demanding Cause is a combination of genetics and environmental factors People rarely seek treatment, but psychotherapy is useful for helping them relate to others in a less maladaptive way Can be aggressive, have risky behavior Suffer from paranoia (mistrust and suspicion with no cause for suspicion) Always feel persecuted believe others are trying to demean, harm, or threaten them Disorder affects their ability to form relationships They take criticism poorly and are overly sensitive Cause is unknown, but likely a combination of biological and psychological factors More common in people with close relatives who have schizophrenia. Suggests a link between the two disorders Psychotherapy is the best treatment. It improves social interaction, communication and self-esteem as well as coping skills. However, many people do not seek treatment or stick with a treatment plan because of their mistrust in others. same symptoms as OCD, but with OCD people have unwanted thoughts and in OCPD they believe their thoughts are correct Overly concerned with certain thoughts and performing certain actions rigid rules and routines symptoms of perfectionism that interfere with their ability to complete tasks emotionally withdrawn SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, a type of antidepressant) reduce anxiety and depression psychotherapy is most effective (treating the disorder by talking about it with a therapist psychodynamic therapy: helps them to understand their thoughts and feelings cognitive-behavioral therapy: helps them change they way they think so they respond to anxiety in a more effective way Paranoid Schizophrenia Catatonic
Schizophrenia Undifferentiated
Schizophrenia Disorganized
Schizophrenia Causes Most debilitating of all psychological disorders makes functioning in society very difficult People with schizophrenia have sensory overload, unable to block out extra sensory information Most scientists think it is caused by an excess of dopamine receptors. An increase in dopamine intensifies brain signals. Drugs that block dopamine receptors improve symptoms Genetic predisposition, triggered by environmental factors Brain scans show abnormal brain activity in various parts of the brain Decreased activity in frontal lobes hallucinations: increased activity in core regions, thalamus (filters incoming sensory signals and transmits them to the cortex paranoia: increased activity in the amygdala (fear processing center) shrinkage of cerebral tissue, more shrinkage=more severe symptoms Prenatal development problems or birth complications could cause brain abnormalities. During the second trimester, fetuses exposed to the flu-virus had a greater chance of developing schizophrenia Symptoms categorized as positive or negative Symptoms Positive: presence of inappropriate behavior
Delusions: false beliefs
Hallucinations: perceptions in the absence of stimuli (auditory and visual)
Inappropriate effect: reactions inappropriate to the situation Negative: absence of appropriate behavior
flat effect: showing no emotion
catatonia: showing no movements, or pointless, repetitious movements for hours at at time Causes Delusions of persecution Hallucinations Mostly exhibit positive symptoms Catatonia Flat effect Mostly exhibit negative symptoms Will remain motionless for hours When they move, they exhibit odd movement May have waxy flexibility: when moved into a position they will stay there for hours Inappropriate effect Odd use of language Make up words speech does not make sense Exhibit disorganized thinking, but don't fit into any of the other types Have many and varied symptoms Schizophrenia is treated with a combination of antipsychotic, antidepressant, and anti-anxiety medications Antipsychotics improve positive symptoms. They control hallucinations and delusions of schizophrenia by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. Disconuation of medications is common, especially when the side effects are untolerable Other forms of therapy are not very effective on their own, but can help a person learn to function normally and improve their quality of life when used with drug therapy Treatment Treatment for anxiety disorders Treatment for anxiety disorders National Alliance on Mental Illness, . "Dissociative Identity Disorder." National alliance on mental illness. NAMI, 2000. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.nami.org/Content/ContentGroups/Helpline1/Dissociative_Identity_Disorder_(formerly_Multiple_Personality_Disorder).htm>. Mayo Clinic Staff, . "Dissociative Disorders." Mayo clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2011. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/dissociative-disorders/DS00574>. . "Abnormal Psychology." The AP Psychology Commune. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://appsychology.com/Book/AbmormalPsych/abnormal_psychology.htm>. Zieve, D., and D. B. Marrill. "Major Depression." Pubmed health. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2011. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001941/>. Merril, D.. "Dysthymia." Ncbi. National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2010. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001916/>. Berger Fred, K.. "Bipolar Disorder." Pubmed health. A.D.A.M., Inc., 2011. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001924/>. Cleveland Clinic, . "Dissociative Fugue." Cleveland clinc. The Cleveland Clinic, 2005. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/dissociative_disorders/hic_dissociative_fugue.asp&xgt;. Thomas, I.. "Anxiety disorders." National institute of mental health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/anxiety-disorders/introduction.shtml>. "Causes of OCD." Anxietycare uk. Anxiety Care UK, 2012. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.anxietycare.org.uk/docs/ocdcauses.asp>. National institute of mental health. National Institute of Mental Health, 2009. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/anxiety-disorders/specific-phobias.shtml>. "Treatment of Anxiety Disorders." Nimh: General anxiety disorder. National insitute of mental health, 2009. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/anxiety-disorders/generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad.shtml>. Cleveland, C.. "Dissociative Amnesia." Cleveland clinic. The Cleveland Clinic, 2005. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/dissociative_disorders/hic_dissociative_amnesia.asp&xgt;. Vorvick, L.. "Conversion Disorder." Pubmed health. A.D.A.M, 2010. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001950/>. Vorvick, L. I.. "Hypochondriasis." Pubmed health. A.D.A.M, 2010. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002216/>. Mayo Clinic Staff, . "Antisocial Personality Disorder." Mayo clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2010. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/antisocial-personality-disorder/DS00829>. "Histrionic Personality Disorder." Pubmed health. A.D.A.M., 2010. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002498/>. Psych Central Staff, . "Dependent personality disorder." Psychcentral. PsychCentral, 2011. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx13.htm>. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia, . "Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder." Pubmed health. Columbia University, 2010. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001938/>. The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, . "Diseases & Conditions "Paranoid Personality Disorder"." Cleveland clinic. The Cleveland Clinic, 2005. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/personality_disorders/hic_paranoid_personality_disorder.asp&xgt;. Grohol, J. M.. "Schizophrenia Treatment." Psychcentral.com. Psych Central, 2011. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx31t.htm>. Rebecca Carlson
AP Psychology
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