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Purgatorio and Paradiso

Dante's Divine Comedy w/o Inferno
by

Cierra Guerra

on 19 March 2015

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Transcript of Purgatorio and Paradiso

Purgatorio
Brian, Alexis, Elijah, and Cierra
What is Purgatory?
from Latin "Purgare" (to make clean or purify)
Created when Satan fell from heaven onto Jerusalem
Formed island-mountain opposite Jerusalem
consists of ten levels (seven terrace levels)
Earthly Paradise
Top of mountain is flat and circular
Takes place in the Garden of Eden
Absolutely beautiful surrounding seems eternal and full of peace
Place without sickness and suffering
Dante encounters Matilda who is picking flowers and explains the garden and two rivers
Two rivers: Lethe and Eunoe
-Lethe drank first and empties mind of all canceled sins
-Eunoe enhances recollection of good one accomplished
Who is in Purgatory?
Reserved for people who never completed penance
Penance: voluntary self-punishment inflicted as an outward expression of repentance for having done wrong
Goal- pay atonement for sins and reach Earth Paradise with the hopes of reaching heaven itself
Gate-keeper
angel who sits on granite block over the third step of the entrance
dressed in old rugged earthly robe, but holds sword of light from heaven
allows the devout in and also those who give him reason enough to
marks each person who enters with seven P's on their foreheads (one for each deadly sin)
holds two keys-silver(remorse) and gold (reconciliation) given to him by St. Peter to see if the person is allowed in to Purgatory or not
those who go through must keep to the straight and narrow path and be sure to not look back lest they be brought back
Ante-Purgatory (2 Levels)
Level 1
The Excommunicate
The Lethargic
Level 2
The Un-Absolved
The Negligent Rulers
Gate Of Purgatory
Symbolism of the entrance and gate:
white marble (represents purity)
>black (represents sin and mourning )
-this section contains two cracks-forming the cross
>flaming porphryr/bright red (represents blood)
gate is made out of branded iron (represents strength to keep others out)
First Terrace (The Proud)
White marble carved with life-like sculptures representing humility
- Angels
- Ark of the Covenant
Purging of the sin of Pride
Carry heavy burdens
Pray for themselves and those on Earth still in danger of hell
Angel stationed before second terrace erases one of Dante's P's
- fewer and fainter the P's, the easier the ascent
The Second Terrace (The Envious)
very bare and empty
also contains angels (though not seen) can be joined at The Table of Love
sin of envy is purged by the people wearing hair-cloth and having eye-lids shut
the sun shines brightly in this level as if gaining on them (cannot be shaded, but is later covered with smoke)

The Third Terrace (The Wrathful)
Purging of wrath
Thick smoke (blinding effect of anger)
People whispering 'Agnus Dei', "Oh, lamb of God, who takes all sins away"
On way to fourth sun appears again
-some light from angel who is so glorious humans can't look at him
The Fourth Terrace (The Slothful)
on this level are those who were slow to promote the good over the bad in their lives
plain undecorated flint rock
inhabitants of this level must run without stopping day or night
on this level Dante has a vision of a siren who tries to lead him astray but is rescued by Virgil
angel with swan wings comes to remove another P from his head and leads him on
The Fifth Terrace (The Covetous)
Everyone lying face down crying
Materialism
Those who pursued wealth and were greedy and those who weren't greedy enough
Claimed it was worst punishment in all of Purgatory
They turned their eyes on Earthly material gains so now their eyes and bodies are pressed into Earth until sin is cleansed
Encounter Pope Adrian V. (Power, prestige, wealth desire)
The Sixth Terrace (The Gluttonous)
on this level there is an very healthy apple tree and stream of water flows from the mountain above it, but if the inhabitants eat or drink they will eat but be hungry and thirstier than before
inhabitants are like skeletons, starving and are taught virtues of temperance
inhabitants on this level are formerly highly-respected church members who indulged too much in life
second tree- inhabitants reach hands up to apples until disillusioned and departing
voice coming from a figure sitting on the branch Eve picked apple from speaks out warnings of gluttony and dangers of the tree
angel of red clear light descends from above the tree and takes of another P from Dante
narrow staircase leads to the seventh level and all must go in single-file line to enter
Dante enters as Statius on generation, the fusion of the soul and body, and afterlife (function of souls)
The Seventh Terrace (The Lustful)
Tall field of flames with strong wind
People's passions burned away
Cry of the virtues of husbands and wives, the obligations of marriage (hetero and homosexuals both here)
2 groups: one stationary, one moving
Stationary= those who thought about lust too much
Moving= those who committed actually acts
Must go through flames to enter Earthly Paradise
Very painful, but does not harm body
Ante-Purgatory Level One
Excommunicated
: those who died outside of church
-died repentant but non-reconciled w/ Church
-must wait outside of Purgatory 30x longer than they were outside the Church
- prayers of those on Earth can reduce time
Lethargic
: the negligent
-those who did repent but right before death
-must wait time equivalent to time spent unrepentant
Ante-Purgatory Level 2
The Un-Absolved
: those who delayed repentance and met death with violence
-still must wait and pray
The Negligent Rulers
: virtuous rulers, negligent of salvation
-in valley where they are tempted at dusk by snake
-two angels stood guard over valley

Paradiso
Introduction
Begins at noon on the Wednesday following Easter Sunday on top of Mount Purgatory
Traveling to a different planet is equivalent to another level of Dante's Paradiso
Also known as the Nine spheres of Heaven
Each level is associated with different angelic attributes, as well as modern connection to certain planets
There is the Empyrean + the nine spheres = ten regions

Four cardinal virtues (Prudence, justice, temperance and fortitude )
Three theological virtues (faith, hope and charity)
Nine spheres (moon, mercury, Venus, the sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, fixed stars, and the primum mobile)

Classifications
The inconstant
The craters on the moon as well as the waxing and waning are associated with inconstancy
Souls: abandoned their vows
Vow: a pact between a man and God where a person freely gives up his free will to God
Vow should always be kept unless a greater evil would come out of keeping the vow

The Moon
Mercury
The ambitious
Allegory: those who are in this sphere did a lot of good things, but sometimes they acted out of selfishness
Souls: wanted earthly gratification instead of God's
Comparison: Earthly glory to God's glory & Mercury to the Sun

The lovers
Those who loved others and cared about the greater good instead of their own interests
Souls: tried to make the world a better place with kindness to others
Characters: Charles Martel of Anjou; Folquet de Marseilles

Venus
The wise
Allegory: Sun illuminates Earth as the wise enlighten the world with their wisdom
Souls: those who invoked wisdom upon others during their time on Earth
24 souls dance around Dante and Beatrice representing wise souls of philosophers, theologians and a king

The Sun
The warriors of the faith
Souls: gave their lives to God, displaying fortitude
association to Mars being God of War
individuals associated with the stars in the Milky Way
Cacciaguida- was able to tell Dante’s about his future exile; told him to write about his experiences within the three realms of the afterlife

Mars
The Just Rulers
Association: Jupiter was known as the King of Gods
Souls: rulers who displayed justice; didn't exalt themselves over their subjects
Recognizable souls: Constantine, David, and Hezekiah

Jupiter
The Contemplatives
Souls: devote life to prayer, embodied self-control over outside distractions
At this point Dante has reached a level that is so pure that the souls here have to be careful not to hurt him with their actions
Before they continue on their journey, Beatrice forces Dante to look down at where they have been and realize how far they have come

Saturn
Faith, Hope and Love
Souls: church triumphant- communion of saints
Recognizable souls: Virgin Mary, St. Peter, St. James, St. John
Dante is questioned by the saints about his faith, hope, and love in order to help him understand what his values should be

Fixed Stars
The angels
Primum Mobile: most important source of motion or action
God moves this sphere, which causes all of the others to move with it
Dante sees a reflection of a bright light in Beatrice's eyes, which represents God who is surrounded by nine circles

The Primum Mobile
Region beyond physical existence
God’s dwelling place
Beatrice is transformed and more beautiful than ever
Dante consumes himself in light allowing him to see God
Celestial Rose- divine love- Beatrice’s home in the rose
Angels like bees distributing peace and love
Beatrice returns her home in the rose; St. Bernard takes over as guide
Dante comes face-to-face with God
God occupies three circles in the same space- father, son, holy spirit
Dante does not understand the connection of the circles but acknowledges that he won’t be able to without God's help
God accepts Dante's request for understanding, and all of a sudden, Dante understands the trinity and everything that he had ever wondered about

Empyrean
Differences
Paradiso not based on punishment or sin
Light vs dark contrast

Similarities
Souls are stationary
Levels still based on life choices

Comparison to Dante’s Inferno
http:/www.clockworksky.netrp_dante_purgatory.html
http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Italian/DantnotesPurg.htm#anchor_Toc64100702
http://www.shmoop.com/paradiso/summary.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradiso_%28Dante%29
http://www.worldofdante.org/paradiso1.html
References
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