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Knowledge Communication and Visualization for Decision Making in Management
Transcript of Knowledge Communication and Visualization for Decision Making in Management
Sofia, Bulgaria What? Why? Applications: Decision Making Tools "But I can't draw..." Knowledge Communication and Visualization for Decision Making in Management Prof. Dr. Sabrina Bresciani
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
sabrinabresciani.com http://www.visual-literacy.org/pages/maps/mapping_tools_radar/radar.html June 1-2nd 2013 Introduction & Motivation Theory and Practice Visualization CARMEN
C oordination: it facilitates interaction.
A ttention: it is noticed.
R ecall: it is remembered.
M otivation: it mobilizes the viewers.
E laboration: it fosters understanding.
N ew insights: it enables new discoveries. Source: Visualizing information for advocacy. An introduction to information design, John Emerson, Principal at Apperceptive LLC. Why? Dual coding theory & Picture superiority effect
“Visualization provides multiple retrieval paths for accessing knowledge” Dual coding theory
(Paivio, 1969; Clark & Paivio, 1991)
Information is processed through one or two channels:
-the verbal (textual, auditory, sequential)
-non-verbal or imagery (visual, spatial)
using both channels together increases:
recall, engagement and attention Theory Recall Source: Tufte, E. R., The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, Connecticut,
Graphic Press, 1986. (a-ha effect)
Why? Visuospatial reasoning (Tversky 2004)
i.e. pattern recognition, search, overview-zoom Source: Larkin and Simon 87: Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words *Salience = how a representation facilitates focusing
and processing certain information, at the expense of others Visuospatial reasoning
Tversky (2004) and Larkin and Simon (1987)
When visualization is used, cognitive abilities for reasoning, evaluating and solving problems are enhanced
Visuospatial advantages (mapping):
-Reduce cognitive load
- Enhance representation of relationships among complex constructs
(O’Donnel et al. 2002)
Salience (Green Suthers, 2001) New Insight Elaboration Motivation Coordination Attention (reducing information overload) Visualization makes you happy! http://www.knowledge-communication.org/ Supports client communication
Creates involvement and invites participation
Creates personal touch and simplicity Case: UBS Hand drawing library Contract Visualization Passera and Haappio 2011 David B. Berman (2008). Do good design, Peachpit Press Advantages Domain: (knowledge) management and education
Similar concepts: visual thinking conceptual visualization, qualitative graphic representation, infographics Domain: computer science “the use of computer-supported, interactive, visual representations of abstract data to amplify cognition” (Card et al. 1999) Source: Eppler, M.J. & Burkhard, R., Knowledge Visualization, Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management, Idea Group Inc., 2006.
Source: Stefan Bertschi, Sabrina Bresciani, et al., "What is Knowledge Visualization? Perspectives on an Emerging Discipline," iv, pp.329-336, 2011 15th International Conference on Information Visualisation, 2011 “designates all graphic means that can be used to represent and convey complex insights, experiences, or capabilities” (Eppler & Burkhard, 2006)
“Knowledge Visualization is expressing concepts through meaningful graphical mapping. “ (Bertschi, Bresciani et al., 2011). Knowledge Visualization: http://www.infovis-wiki.net/index.php/Information_Visualization Information Visualization: What’s the difference? Numbers Concepts / ideas Gartner Disadvantages COMA
O verload / Oversimplification
M anipulation / Misinterpretation
A mbiguity Please draw a house Overdeterminism Sources: Pro4s, Cambridge, UK
Shimoijma A., On the efficacy of Representations, Indiana University, PhD Thesis, 1996 Confusion/Overload Manipulation/Oversimplification Manipulation/Ambiguity Wainer H., How to display data badly, The American Statistician, Vol. 38, n. 2, 1984. Manipulation llama http://www.gapminder.org/videos/200-years-that-changed-the-world-bbc/ Improving visualizations: NASA case The evening before the launch,
the rocket engineers and managers considered the question:
“Will the rubber O-rings fail catastrophically tomorrow
because of the cold weather?” INSIGHT! Tufte, E. R. (1997): Visual Explanations. Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphic Press. Challenger (NASA) 1986 Does it seem easy? Obvious?
7 people died Help the New York Times to present the information with a visualization which is: informative and not misleading Improving visualizations: NYT case Example: Brain mass case Tufte, E. R. (2007): Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphic Press. INSIGHT! Let's practice! To compare Tegarden, P., Business Information Visualization, Communications of AIS, Vol. 1 (4), 1999. Parallel Coordinates
For visualizing highly multivariate datasets www.macrofocus.com/infoscope/ Source: compiled from www.corda.com Source: http://www.smartmoney.com/map-of-the-market/ Treemaps
Rectangular, space-filling approach for visualizing hierarchical data (multilevel / nested) Overview-zoom The tree nodes are encapsulated into the area of their parent node. The size of the single nodes is determined proportionally in relation to all other nodes of the hierarchy by an attribute of the node (Johnson and Shneiderman, 1991) Let’s practice!
Develop your own!
3 main goals
Synergies and tradeoffs Synergy map
(sw: let’s focus) http://datajournalism.stanford.edu/ Information Visualization Application: Many Eyes (IBM)
http://www-958.ibm.com/software/data/cognos/manyeyes/ Let's practice!
Use Manyeyes to develop
an insightful information visualization
Be prepared to present it Degrafa Anychart Data Visualization Tools
for creating graphs, Gantt charts, diagrams, calendars/schedulers, mapping, pivot tables, sparklines, etc. www.visualisingdata.com Knowledge Visualization http://www.visual-literacy.org/periodic_table/periodic_table.html www.gartner.com/
Gartner delivers technology research to global technology business leaders to make informed decisions on key initiatives. Hype Cycle Magic Quadrant