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Copy of Copy of Joyce Travelbee

Nursing Theorist

Rudelyn Martin

on 14 July 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Joyce Travelbee

Theory of Human-to-Human
Relationship Model

Joyce Travelbee
Professional life...
Instructor at Depaul Hospital Affiliate School in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1952 focusing on psychiatric nursing (during BSN degree).

Taught Psychiatric Nursing at Charity Hospital School of Nursing at Louisiana State University, New York University and the University of Mississippi.

Was director of Graduate Education at Louisiana State University School of Nursing until her death in 1973.

Was named project director at Hotel Dieu School of Nursing in New Orleans in 1970.
Published work....
1963 - began publishing articles in nursing journals.

1966 - 1st book “Interpersonal Aspects of Nursing” published in 1966 & 1971.

1969 - 2nd book published “Intervention in Psychiatrics Nursing: Process and One-to-One Relationship”.
More about Travelbee...
After 1966 Travelbee experienced working as a psychiatric nurse at a Catholic hospital and believed the institution lacked “compassion and caring and lacked a humanistic approach”
(Travelbee, 1966, pp 99).

Believed nursing evolved through human to human relationships that involved empathy.

Believed nurse-client therapeutic relationship was a prerequisite in any interaction.

Her theory has lived on influencing nursing in general as well as hospice movement.
1. The Theory:
“In 1971, Joyce Travelbee declared a nurse does not only seek to alleviate physical pain or render physical care – she ministers to the whole person. The existence of suffering, whether physical, mental, or spiritual, is the proper concern of the nurse.” (Travelbee, 1971, p. 159)
by Brenda L., Monika P.,
& Kaela S.

* Based theory around the concepts of

* Drew influence from Logotherapy.

* Builds upon interpersonal models from
Orlando and Peplau.

* Was a strong humanist and it is reflected
deeply in her theory.
2. Theory's Purpose?
Often nurses were simply caring for the medical aspect of illness and neglecting the other components of human beings.

Travelbee's theory emphasizes the importance of holism within nursing, which refers to the treatment of the whole person: physical, mental, spiritual, and social components.

Therefore the purpose of her theory was to make nursing a relational practice with high importance on the nurse-client or human-to-human relationship.
4. Theory Definitions:
Targeted Intellectual Approach
5. Theory Relationships:
3. Theory's Concepts:
Key Concepts:
1. Person: a unique irreplaceable
individual who is in a continuous process of becoming, evolving, and changing.
2. Health: objective and subjective.
3. Environment: not clearly defined.
4. Nursing: is to help man to find
meaning in the experience of illness and suffering.
About Travelbee...
Life: 1926 – 1973, passed away at 47yrs.

Travelbee was a psychiatric nurse, an educator and a writer.

BSN degree at Louisiana State University in 1956
Master of Science Degree in Nursing at Yale University in 1959
Started a doctoral program in education in Florida in 1973 but never finished due to illness resulting in her death
The Human to Human Theory
“A theory is a creative and rigorous structuring of ideas that projects tentative, purposeful, and systematic view of phenomena” (Chin & Kramer, 2011, p. 185).
“Relationships are the linkage among and between concepts” (Chin & Kramer, 2011, p. 189).
6. Theory structure:
1. Phase of the original encounter

2. Phase of emerging identities

3. Phase of empathy: The ability to understand and share the
feelings of another, to step into the life of another person to accurately perceive his/her current feelings and their meanings (Travelbee, 1966).

4. Phase sympathy: Genuine concern for the patient coupled with a
desire to help the patient alleviate suffering (Travelbee, 1966).

5. Phase of rapport
Facilitation of
7. Theory Assumptions:
“Assumptions are those basic givens or accepted truths that are fundamental to theoretical reasoning” (Chin & Kramer, 2011, p. 194).
1. How clear is the theory
for the nurses using the material?
a. Semantic clarity

b. Structural clarity?
2.How simple is this theory?
a. The number of elements within each

b. The number of relationships between each
Travelbee thought that nurses should want to reduce suffering through creating meaning and instilling hope into the patient’s interactions.
The nurse performs this through
communication, self-therapy, and
targeted intellectual approach.
Five phases of Travelbee’s human-to-human theory:
That nurses are genuinely caring.
That patients want to make meaning out of
their illness.
That all patients are suffering to some extent.
That both the nurse and the patient are
interested in developing rapport.
That nurse have the know-how to use themselves therapeutically through communication.
3. How general is this theory?
a. Breadth of scope and purpose?

b. To whom does this theory apply? Individuals, families, communities and societies?

c. When is the theory best applied? Past, present, future?

d. Does the purpose apply to specific specialties or groups of nursing?
4. How accessible is this theory?
a. Are the concepts abstract or concrete?

b. Are the indicators used in practice?

c. Are the concepts clinically relevant?

d. Are there any subconcepts?
5.How important is this theory?
a. Does the theory have clinical significance in
your practice or practical value?

b. What are the basic assumptions?

c. Do you understand and like this theory and why
would you adopt it?
Class Discussion
Belle. (2012). Joyce Travelbee. Retrived from: http://joycetravelbee.blogspot.ca/

Chinn, P. L., & Kramer, M. K. (2011). Integrated knowledge development in nursing(8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Current Nursing (2012). Human to Human relationship model. Retrieved from: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Joyce_Travelbee.html,

Melis, A. (2012). Theoretical Nursing: Development and Progress. Retrieved from: http://books.google.ca/books?id=kPdB1vU1c1YC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

Nursing Theory. (2011). Joyce Travelbee Theory. Retrieved from: http://nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/travelbee-human-to-human-model-of-nursing.php

Image References:

Joyce Travelbee B&W image http://nursing.lsuhsc.edu/FacultyStaff/Congrats.html
* A lot of emphasis on caring

* This theory stresses
the emotional aspect
of nursing
Full transcript