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A Time for Justice: A Civil Rights Journey

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Matthew Jenkins

on 27 May 2013

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Transcript of A Time for Justice: A Civil Rights Journey

A Civil Rights Journey A Time for Justice The United States had been a country that was built on slavery. The 13th Amendment abolished slavery but discrimination did not end. During the 1950's, the civil rights journey grew, and it is still going on today. This was the Supreme Court case about segregation of schools in Topeka, Kansas. The Court found unanimously that segregation was unconstitutional. This overturned the Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson. "Separate but equal" was no longer allowed. 1954 Brown V. Board of Education Rosa Parks lived in Montgomery Alabama. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat near the front of bus to a white man. She was arrested. The people organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott led by Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. Eight months later, (1956) the Supreme Court held that bus segregation was unconstitutional. 1955 Rosa Parks and the
Montgomery Bus Boycott The Journey Continued Start Your Journey! 1955 Emmett Till Emmet Till was a 14 year old black teen who was murdered when he was visiting Mississippi. He was murdered because he spoke to a white woman. They were witnesses to his murder but the murderers were found not guilty by an all white jury. The murder of Emmett Til had a powerful effect on young black people. They wanted justice and freedom. 1957 Little Rock Nine Nine black students were supposed to attend Central High School in Little Rock Arkansas. The Arkansas Governor ordered the National Guard to stop them. President Eisenhower brought in 11,000 troops so that the students could go to school. Central High became desegregated. The President's involvement showed that desegregation was important to the President and the country and that the President wouldn't let states interfere. 1960 SNCC
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Students in the SNCC played major roles in the sit-ins, Freedom rides and the March on Washington. They helped raise money and were active in voter registration and education programs. Young people helped organize the civil rights movement. Their ideas were different and changed history. Stokely Carmichael was one of the leaders of the SNCC. Lunch Counter Sit-ins 1960 Black people couldn't be served in some restaurants in Greensboro, NC. In protest, black college students wouldn't leave lunch counters and they staged sit-ins. A New York Times article about the sit-ins drew national attention and 11 other cities had sit-ins with black and white students. Even though students were arrested, more students got involved. Eventually, police stopped arresting students. The Presidential candidates spoke about this during the campaign which was the first time Presidential candidates addressed civil rights issues. Sit-ins were a new way for Americans to stand up for their rights. Freedom Riders 1961 Busloads of mixed-races people tried to end segregation of bus terminals by riding the buses in the South. Supreme Court said segregation was unconstitutional and the riders were testing it. There was a lot of violence and people got arrested; more people volunteered. President Kennedy ordered 500 U.S. marshals to Alabama to stop the violence. Kennedy made a deal with Southern governors. He wouldn't send federal troops if there was no mob violence against the riders. Segregation was illegal already. The Freedom Riders were making sure the law was followed. President Kennedy made sure they were safe. Birmingham Campaign 1963 Birmingham was one of the most segregated cities in the 1960's. Black demonstrators were arrested, fined, and jailed. Martin Luther King, Reverend Abernathy, and Reverend Shuttlesworth were arrested and taken to jail. MLK wrote a "Letter from Birmingham Jail" to defend the necessity of nonviolent resistance. "Letter from Birmingham Jail" is another important work that inspired nonviolent resistance to unjust laws. Birmingham Church Bombing 1963 Ku Klux Klan bombed a Baptist Church and killed 4 little girls in Birmingham, Alabama. The church was the center of life for Birmingham's African American community. In response, there were riots and young people died. The bombing shocked the nation and helped the civil rights movement. Civil Rights Act of 1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed after a major battle in the Senate. President Johnson lobbied for the passage using civil and religious leaders of all faiths. It was the most important piece of civil rights legislation in US history at the time and outlawed discrimination based on race, religion, minority status and women. It was designed to end segregation in public schools and public accommodations. It outlawed unequal application of voter requirements. March on Washington 1963 200,000 people marched for civil rights in a march on Washington D.C. At the march, Dr. King gave his "I have a Dream" speech on August 28, 1963. The march now symbolizes the civil rights movement. King's speech is one of the most important speeches in U.S. history. Selma March 1965 (Alabama) Martin Luther King was going to lead the march to call attention to police brutality and civil rights. However, MLK went to Washington and was not at the march. The people in Selma decided not to wait. Governor Wallace had the marchers tear gassed and beaten. A white minister marching was killed. This date, March 7, 1965, is now called Bloody Sunday. Later in the month, MLK led another march from Selma to Montgomery. Black Power Movement 1966 The Black Power Movement was movement of racial pride in the 1960's and 1970's. It helped black organizations get started and aided in the progress of the civil rights movement. Stokely Carmichael, was one of the leaders of the SNCC and one of the leaders of the Black Power Movement. Assassination of Martin Luther King
April 4, 1968 Dr. King was shot by a sniper, James Earl Ray, and killed in Memphis Tennessee. He was only 39 years old. Afterward, there were riots in more than a 100 American cities. Dr. King was buried in Atlanta and many people carried on his work. Dr. King is considered an American hero. Voting Rights Act of 1965 The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was a major piece of civil rights legislation that outlawed discriminatory practices in voting. There could no longer be poll taxes, literacy tests or grandfather clauses that had been used to prevent African Americans from voting.
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