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Cold War Storybook

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by

Dermot Adelmann

on 28 February 2013

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Transcript of Cold War Storybook

Mao Zedong and Communist China The Iron Curtain Setting the Stage After the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, attaining nuclear weaponry or preventing enemies from gaining it became a priority amongst allied nations. As the U.S. and the USSR gained more fire power, they both became greater threats to the world, and to each other. Differences in Beliefs The Iron Curtain Europe had been divided into Eastern Europe and Western Europe. The East side was made up of communist nations and the
West side was made
up of mostly
democratic nations.
The phrase "iron
curtain" is used to
represent the
division between the two sides of Europe. Stalin believed that Churchill was using this term to provoke war. "A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victories. . . . an iron curtain has descended across the continent."
-Winston Churchill Although the Nationalists had outnumbered the Communists 3 to 1, the Communists won China's civil war after the defeat of Japan. Western nations viewed the rise of communism in China as a successful part of the plan for communists to take over the world. China and the Soviets signed the treaty of friendship after the civil war, this treaty fueled tensions between the United States and the Soviets because the United States felt more threatened. Under the rule of Mao Zedong, China expanded their borders to Tibet, Mongolia and other Asian nations.

As communism began to become more strict in China, Mao enforced the Agrarian Reform Law which made landlords leave their land for the government so the land could be divided equally amongst everyone. Over a million landlords who refused the new law were killed. In 1958, Mao's policy "The Great Leap Forward" forced peasants into large labor camps, called communes. Workers were treated terribly and lost the will to work hard for their government. As a result, this plan had eventually failed, many crops died and about 20 million workers died from a famine. The Cold War The United States tried to spread democracy, while the USSR wanted to spread communism. The U.S. believed in individual freedom and rights, but the USSR believed in a totalitarian state, where the government controlled every aspect of private and public life. The differences in ideas led to conflicts between the two nations about who had the right ideas and who should be able to spread their beliefs throughout the world. Bombing of
Nagasaki Thoughts on Stalin Joseph Stalin had attempted to bring communism to all of Europe, he created a border of communist countries to protect the USSR. However, his practices were rejected by France, Britain and the United States. Some considered Stalin to be just as cruel and evil as Hitler. A look at the conflict for teens U.S. Containment In the late 1940s, the relations between the United States and the Soviet Union began to worsen. The U.S. wanted to exterminate the Soviet threat to Europe. President Harry Truman adopted the foreign policy to stop the spread of communism, which was the U.S. containment. Truman Doctrine In 1947, President Harry Truman wanted to help Turkey and Greece to fight off Soviet expansion. Soon after he declared that the United States would give military assistance to any countries threatened by the USSR. This decision led to controversy, foreign countries didn't think that the United States would be able to assist outside nations. However, the U.S. Congress authorized over $400 million to help aid the countries in need. Marshall Plan After world War II, much of Europe was in dire need of rebuilding. The Marshall plan was a United States program that help aid European countries in their rebuilding of their economies. The Marshall Plan’s goal was to help rebuild Europe and help to stabilize their economy. This would also allow the United States more access to Europe, which would increase trade between European nations and the U.S. President Harry Truman During Europe's rehabilitation after World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union were fighting over control of Germany. In 1948, France, Britain and the United States turned their occupation zones into one nation, attempting to reunite Germany. The Soviets wanted Germany to stay in occupation zones so that they remained weak and could not rise up against the USSR. When the occupation zones were removed, the Soviets took hold of West Berlin. Similarly to the rest of Germany, Berlin was also divided into occupation zones, even though it was in the middle of Soviet territory. In West Berlin, the Soviets halted all water, highways and railways. Their acts brought starvation to the city. Stalin thought that these acts of terror in Berlin would stop France, Britain and the United States from trying to reunite Germany. Instead of giving up, Britain and the United States flew food and supplies into West Berlin. The Soviets held West Berlin in these conditions for about 11 months, during which Britain and the United States continued to aid the hostages. In May 1949, the Soviet Union had admit defeat and lifted the blockade The Berlin Blockade and Airlift The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was a defensive military alliance formed by ten western European countries, Canada and the United States in 1949. The Warsaw pact was a military alliance between the Soviet Union and seven Eastern European countries formed in 1955. The treaties were formed because both the United States and the Soviet Union felt threatened by each other. The United States had an alliance with other democratic nations, and the Soviets had alliances with other communist nations. The countries needed to ensure themselves protection in the case of a possible war. The countries also allied themselves with countries that had similar government systems because they would have more trust in each other. If the allied countries had different systems of government, they might feel threatened that one nation could turn against them and try to spread their own beliefs NATO The Arms Race The Pacts led Eastern Europeans to build the Berlin wall, which separated democratic Berlin from Communist Berlin. The wall represented a division between some of the world's greatest powers The Cold War between the Soviets and the United States began to grow dangerous. Both countries attempted to obtain more nuclear technology. When the Soviets gained atomic bombs, the United States started to test the hydrogen bomb, which would be even more devastating than the original bombs that ended WWII. Once Eisenhower took control of the White House in 1953, a new secretary of state was appointed, the anti-communist John Foster Dulles. Dulles threatened the Soviets with nuclear weapons. He said that if they were going to attack the United States, the U.S. would retaliate with as many weapons as they pleased, placed wherever they wanted in the USSR. Growing tensions between the nations led to both countries building up stockpiles of nuclear weapons, starting an arms race that lasted for four decades. Both the Soviets and China wanted to lead the worldwide communist movement. They also had many territorial disputes, their friendship treaty began to fade. Many political leaders began to move apart from Mao's communist ideas, however Mao thought that their communist government was weakened by the new economic policies. He encouraged the young people of China to rise up against the new policies and fight to bring communism back to China. Millions of kids all over China formed the Red Guards, violent groups of high school and college students who fought to help Mao's ways thrive. They were so violent that Mao ended up exiling many of them.

Before their exile, the Red Guards had started a giant uprising called the Cultural Revolution. The goal of this revolution was to create a classless society amongst the peasants. All people who had jobs that required intelligence were deemed as useless and possibly dangerous. Colleges and schools were shut down. Anyone who may have been a student in college or has an intellectual job was forced into harsh labor, many intellects were killed or imprisoned. The revolution caused chaos in China, so eventually Mao had to stop the uprising and get rid of the Red Guards. The Korean War At the end of World War II, Korea had been divided into North and South. Soviets occupied the North and American troops occupied the South. In 1950, the North attacked the South, trying to expand their rule. President Truman believed it was another act of the Communist plan to rule the world. After a vote, excluding the Soviet Union, determined that the UN should intervene with the war, they sent troops in to help South Korea. They were able to push the North all the way to the Chinese border, however, the Chinese felt threatened by the UN troops and a group of other American fleets. The Chinese decided to send 300,000 troops to fight off the UN. The Chinese greatly outnumbered UN forces, so general Douglas MacArthur ordered a nuclear strike on the Chinese. Truman declined his order to prevent another world war, and when MacArthur tried to go to congress for help, Truman had him removed from his position. After two years of battle, in 1952 the U.S. managed to gain control of the South again. North Korea became very strict, establishing collective farms and a large military under the rule of Kim Il Sung. The Korean War showed the world that North Korea was a part of the Soviet Union's goal to spread communism. This fueled the tension between the United States and the Soviet Union evem further because the U.S. was still trying to prevent the spread of communism. The Soviets had also been allied with North Korea during the Korean war, where the United States aided South Korea. Cuban Missile Crisis In 1960, the CIA had attempted to invade Cuba and take down their harsh communist leader, Fidel Castro. Due to a lack of air support from U.S. forces, the Cubans were able to defeat the invaders and run them out of Cuba. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev believed that the failure of U.S. forces meant that Cuba would be a safe place for Soviet expansion. The Soviets then began to secretly build missiles in Cuban camps. However, these secret camps were discovered by U.S. spy planes. President John F. Kennedy ordered the Soviets to remove their missiles, because nuclear weapons so close to the United States were seen as a threat. The Soviet Union agreed to remove their camps as long as the U.S. did not try to invade Cuba again. This event increased tension between the Soviets and the U.S. even more because of their rivalry in Cuba. Also, as a result of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Castro saught for Soviet assistance. In return, the Cubans supported all communist revolutions in Africa and Latin America. The globalization of Communism continued to upset the United States. John F. Kennedy THE SOVIETS
HAVE FALLEN! The Fall of the Soviet Union After a failed communist attack on the Soviet parliament building, many Soviet citizens bacame very upset with the communist party. The citizens were tired of the harsh government and were ready to fight for their freedom. The failed attack sparked anger all around the Soviet Union. Countries such as Estonia and Latvia declared independence from the Soviets, and eventually 15 states under Soviet control declared their independence. Due to citizens wanting freedom and their own say in the government, the communist party was failing. The leaders of the newly free states met, and they formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), which determined the end of the Soviet Union. Without the Soviets, the Cold War came to an abrupt ending, and with another United States victory! The Fall of the Berlin Wall Eastern Germans who had been vacationing in Hungary were allowed to cross the border into Austria, from which they could travel to West Germany. When the Communist government of the East discovered the escaping civilians, they closed off their borders. These new restrictions caused giant uprisings, demanding the freedom to travel and to vote. Eventually, the government had no choice but to step down and obey the commands of the people. in the year 1987, U.S. president Ronald Reagan ordered the Eastern government to tear down the Berlin Wall. Two years later, the new East German leader Egon Krenz, thought that by letting people leave the east, he could restore the communist government. However, his plan did not work, and Germany was finally reunited. In late 1989, communism was no longer in Germany. Fall of the Berlin Wall
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