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Childhood Obesity

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Dana Bonsack

on 27 March 2014

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Transcript of Childhood Obesity

Childhood Obesity
Solutions: Exercise Related

Cardiovascular diseases
Heart disease and heart failure
Type II diabetes
Orthopedic diseases

Plaque build up
-energy intake and energy expenditure

-changes in environment

-parenting practices

-social influences


negative self esteem
withdrawn interactions from peers
feeling of chronic rejection

Research shows childhood obesity is associated with lower academic success later in life (Kantomaa, 2013).
Solutions: Nutrition
: Body Mass Index
: BMI over 85th percentile for age
: BMI over 95th percentile for age
Economic Factors
food prices
–Economists' First Law of Demand
maternal employment
The risk of adult obesity based on the obesity status in childhood and on parental obesity.
"A key to preventing childhood obesity is to create more local programs and facilities for kids to learn sports, exercise, and feel safe in the process" (Tudor-Locke 2001)
Parent's and Society's Role for Exercise?
food/drink consumption and exercise
fast food and electronics
locations of schools, growing populations
parents and the workforce
government policies
The influence of school
Schools are attempting to make school lunches healthier for students, especially by making fruit and vegetables more readily available
School lunches still aren't that healthy, even with fruit and vegetables
The influence of parents
Good nutrition starts in the home!
Anderson, Patricia M., and Kristin F. Butcher. "Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes." Future of Children
(2006): 19-45. ERIC. Web. <http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795889.pdf>.
Berger, Kathleen Stassen. The Developing Person: Through the Lifespan. New York: Worth, 2005. Print.
Caprio, Sonia; Gebel, Myron (2005). Confronting the epidemic of childhood obesity.
McAdams, CYnthia B (2010). The environment and pediatric overweight: A review for nurse practicioners. Journal of the American Academy of
Nurse Practicioners, 22(9), 460-467.
Pediatrics, 115(2), 494-495.
Davies, H. Dele., Hiram E. Fitzgerald, and Vasiliki Mousouli. Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Westport, CT:
Praeger, 2008. Print.
Ebbeling, Cara E., Dorota B. Pawlak, and David S. Ludwig. "Childhood Obesity: Public Health-Crisis, Common Sense
Cure." Seminar (2002): n. pag. Lancet. Web. <http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf13_15/pdf/2002/LAN/10Aug02/7128718.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=7128718&S=R&D=hch&EbscoContent=dGJyMNLr40SeqLM4xNvgOLCmr0yepq5Sr624Ta%2BWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPXb8Yzr5eyMuePfgeyx44Dt6fIA>.
Galvez, Maida P; Frieden, Thomas R; Landrigan, Philip J (2003). Obesity in the 21st
century. Health Perspectives, 111(13), 684.
Rashad, Inas (2003). Assessing the underlying economic causes and consequences of
obesity. Gender Issues, 21(3), 17-29.
Van Staveren, Tonia, and Darren Dale. "Childhood Obesity: Problems and Solutions." Journal of Physical Education,
Recreation and Dance (2004): n. pag. ProQuest. Web. <http://search.proquest.com/docview/215759665?accountid=14990>.
Wartman, Kristin. "Bad Eating Habits Start in the Womb." The New York Times. The New York Times, 01 Dec. 2013. Web. 25 Feb. 2014.
Tudor-locke, C; Ainsworth, B.E; Popkin, B.M. (2001). Active commuting to school: an overlooked source of children's physical activity. Sports
Medicine, 31(5), 309-313.
Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffery; Lissner, Lauren (2009). Childhood Obesity: successes and failures of preventative interventions.
Nutrition Reviews, 67 (1), 89-93.
Spruijt-Metz, Donna (2011). Etiology, treatment, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence: a decade in review. Journal
of Research on Adolescence, 21 (1), 129-152.
Phillips, Frankie (2012). Facing up to childhood obesity. Practice Nurse, 42(11), 14-17.
Cawley, J. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/29/3/364.full
Finkelstein, E. A., Ruhm, C. A., & Kosa, C. M. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://
Stop Subsidizing Obesity. (n.d.). U.S. PIRG. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://
Bouchard, C. (2009). Childhood obesity: Are genetic differences involved?. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), doi: 10.3945/ ajcn.2009.27113C
University College London. (2013, March 26). Study finds strong genetic component to childhood obesity. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from
Goran, M.I., Geoff, B.D.C., Cruz, M.L. (2003). Obesity and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents. 88(4), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2002-021442

Galvez, Maida P; Frieden, Thomas R; Landrigan, Philip J (2003). Obesity in the 21st century. Health Perspectives, 111(13), 684.

Stunkard, A. J., Faith, M. S., & Allison, K. C. (2003). Depression and obesity. Biological Psychiatry, 54(3), 330-337. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00608-5
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Kantomaa, M. T., Stamatakis, E., Kankaanpää, A., Kaakinen, M., Rodriguez, A., Taanila, A., Tammelin, T. (2013). Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(5), 1917-1922. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1214574110
Genetic Influences/Heredity:
Familial Risks
Monogenic obesity
Polygenic obesity
-Exercise for children can come in many different forms
Exercise Habits: Play
-The key is to change lifestyle habits
- There needs to be a shift backwards to where play was emphasized (McAdams 2008)
-Technology has made this very difficult
Solutions: Nutrition
1. Play
-Active, interactive, & inclusive
2. Sports
-Fun way to keep kids moving and active throughout their entire childhood
3. School
-P.E (developmentally appropriate, cooperative games and exercise)
(Berger 2010)
So what can parents do?
Don't give children a large plate of food, then tell them that they have to eat it all
Make dessert special, not nightly
Stay away from sweetened cereals, sweetened drinks (including juice), soda, and fried foods
Limit television time, as advertisements for fast food joints can easily influence children
Solutions: Nutrition
Treatment and Prevention
"Interventions should aim to support overweight children to 'grow into' their weight as opposed to losing weight" (Phillips, 2012)
McGovern et al. (2008) reviewed 60+ interventions to treat childhood and adolescent obesity. Only 23% of these resulted in significant decrease in adiposity" (Spruijt-Metz, 2011)
"A Cochrane review of controlled preventative intervention studies in children concluded that only 3 of 22 (<15%) published trials had been effective when evaluated in terms of weight-for-height or body composition" (Heitmann, Koplan, and Lissner, 2009)
As shown by these studies, schools can't prevent childhood obesity by themselves. The best way to avoid childhood obesity is if parents start healthy eating habits in the home as early as possible.
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