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The Renaissance Period

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Gabrielle Carlo

on 14 September 2016

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Transcript of The Renaissance Period

Ottaviano Petrucci (1466-1539)
was the first to develop a system of music printing. This process was executed by a triple strike impression.
Humanism and the power of print fueled the Protestant Reformation
in the early 16th century, led by German monk Martin Luther (1483-1546). He condoned the church mainly because of the sale of indulgences promising forgiveness in the next life. He was not the first to object church corruption, but access to the printing press spread his ideas more rapidly.
The Renaissance Period
Renaissance means"rebirth."

As a period it represents an awakening of philosophical ideals, a revival of Greek and Roman concepts, independent reason and faith, and above all--dignity of humankind.
The fall of Constantinople to the Turks in
resulted in an influx of ancient manuscripts to Western Europe where scholars took refuge. These ancient works contained Greek and Roman philosophies, which eventually fueled the humanist movement.
The epicenter of the renaissance movement was
Florence, Italy.
It functioned as a vital cultural center and became an indisputable force both politically and economically.
Cosimo de'Medici

(1389-1464), Florence's
uncrowned leader transformed his wealth
into the building blocks that made this
city-state flourish.
Lorenzo de'Medici
(1449-1492) continued to heighten Florence's power as the center for music, poetry, painting, and architecture.
A philosophical movement which epitomized Greek ideals: universal outlook on human values and reason.
Independent reasoning, reliance
on primary sources, dignity of humankind (the human body is beautiful). Strongly opposed Medieval scholasticism where authorities dictated thought.
The humanist movement spread rather quickly due to the invention of the printing press.
Johannes Gutenberg

invented movable type and the printing press in the mid 15th century.
Before the printing press, written word was rare because it was time-consuming and inconsistent.
The first manuscript printed was the
Bible in 1455.
The most significant musical difference between the Renaissance and the Medieval Era was the development of consonance and dissonance.
tension, instability
Composer and theorist,
Johannes Tinctoris
argued against what was considered consonant. His reasoning was based on "the judgement of my ears."
Ultimately, the difference in opinion on consonance and dissonance challenged Medieval scholasticism and was a threat to the authority and teachings of the church.
Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474)
"the moon of all music and
the light of all singers."
Burgundian composer
who was admired for the
quantity and quality of his compositions.
He traveled throughout Europe and maintained many church and court
Most recognized for his masses and motets.
Motet-polyphonic vocal work that was usually sacred.
Nuper rosarum flores
(The Rose Blossoms)
A motet written in 1436 in honor of the newly completed dome of the cathedral in Florence, an architectural masterpiece of Fillippo Brunelleschi.
Dufay's Mass L'homme arme
A borrowed secular melody called the
cantus firmus
, which served as the basis of a composition.
Many versions of L'homme arme were composed throughout the period.
Translation: "The armed man should be feared."
Josquin des Prez (ca 1440-1521)
Known as the Prince of Music
One of the first composers
whose music stood the test of time.
He wrote masses, motets,
and chansons.
Petrucci printed more works
by Josquin than any other composer.
He was Martin Luther's favorite composer.
L'homme arme Agnus Dei
"El Grillo" (The Cricket)
The Italian Madrigal
-a secular vocal composition for three or more voices, which were settings of vernacular poems on various subjects.
Originated in Italy and quickly spread across Europe and England.
The emergence was due to a revival of 14th century poetry.
Use of
(16th century)
Jacob Arcadelt's Il bianco e dolce cigno
"The White and Gentle Swan"
Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594)
"Matona mia cara"
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

His music was referred to as the "ideal model of polyphony." Also known as the savior of polyphony.
He was born in Palestrina, Rome and spent most of his life as organist of the Sistine Chapel.
Composed over 100 masses, 250 motets, and about 100 secular madrigals. (He was quite ashamed of these!)
Palestrina's music combined equal voices, seamless rhythmic flow, controlled dissonance, and flawless part-writing.
He satisfied all of the requirements made by the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
The Counter-Reformation
1540s: it became clear to the Roman Catholic Church
that Protestantism was not disappearing, so Pope
Paul III formed the Council of Trent to challenge
the Protestant Reformation. Sacred music became
an important weapon.
Musical requirements of the Council: "restore church music to a pure vocal style, banish instruments other than organ from services, discard sacred works based on popular songs, and to see that the sacred texts not be obscured by too-elaborate polyphony."
Palestrina fulfilled all of these requirements and legend has it that he "saved polyphony" with his Missa Papae Marcelli
("Mass for Pope Marcellus").
The English Madrigalists
The Italian madrigal traveled to England in the 1560s through manuscripts and publications.
John Dowland

Poet, composer, and lutenist.
"Flow my tears" captures the beauty and sadness of English madrigals.
William Byrd
Known for his keyboard compositions, but he also composed sacred works and madrigals.
The Renaissance period constitutes three broad categories of music:
Sacred vocal music (motets, masses)
Secular vocal music (chansons, madrigals)
Instrumental (keyboard music)
Sandro Boticelli
The Birth of Venus
Leonardo da Vinci
Mona Lisa
Full transcript