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Gender Equality

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Clemmy Nash

on 25 March 2015

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Transcript of Gender Equality

Gender equality:
why women are still held back

Presentation by: Amelia Ince, Abee So and Clemmy Nash
Contents
Key definitions
“A gender stereotype is a generalised view or preconception about attributes or characteristics that are or ought to be possessed by, or the roles that are or should be performed by women and men. A gender stereotype is harmful when it limits women’s and men’s capacity to develop their personal abilities, pursue their professional careers and make choices about their lives and life plans.” (United Nations, 2015)
“The belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theory of the political, economic and social equality of the sexes.” (Watson, 2014)
"The state of being equal, especially in status, rights or opportunities."
(Oxford English Dictionary, 2014)
“No country in the world can yet say they have achieved gender equality.” (Watson, 2014)

“In 1995, Hilary Clinton made a famous speech in Beijing about women’s rights. Sadly many of the things she wanted to change are still a reality today.” (Watson, 2014)
Is gender equality an issue today?
Can vote at 16
Allowed to become a vicar and bishop
Either partner can ask for a separation and divorce
Have same educational rights than males
Could only divorce husband if he was cruel or if he wanted to leave her
No political power
Had to stay at home and look after house and children
Equal opportunity as male in a career
Women's rights in the 19th Century compared to the 21st Century
Gender Identity
Women have financial independence
• Originated in 1984 by Gay Bryant

• The point in a women’s career where she becomes stuck in a middle management position

Women and men filled separate spheres
Lives spent at home
Household chores; cooking, cleaning and washing
Child rearing
Free time spent maintaining the family
Little opportunity for education
Women are less strong then men
Women make less money than men
Women appropriate jobs e.g. nurses, teachers, secretaries
Women do not have technical skills or can work with their hands
Damsels in distress, not the hero
Women do the house work and have the main responsibility to raise children
Stereotypes of women from the 19th century compared to the 21st century
44.5% of girls - married before age of 18 – International Centre for Research on Women (2010)

56,000 maternal deaths - 2010 UN Population Fund

52% of women believe that a man beating his wife is justifiable – UNICEF (2012)
22.3% of judges are female – House of Lords Constitution Committee (2011)

17% of ministerial positions are women – Hansard Society (2012)

18.6% gender pay gap – Office for National Statistics (2011)

62% of university graduates are female – Statistics Canada (2008)

75% of 15-49 women use contraception – UN (2005-2010)

1/3 of federally appointed judges are female – Office of the Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs (2012)
Simon Pegg
Forest Whitaker
Douglas Booth
Gregg Sulkin
Joseph Gordon Levitt
Grant Gustin
Felicia Day
Emma Watson
Beyounce
Patricia Arquette
Meryl Streep
Jennifer Lopez
Celebrities that support gender equality include....
Reece Witherspoon
Nuclear family

Separation and Maintenance Act 1925 - made divorce easier for women

Lone parenthood predicted rise of 31% between 2013 - 2033 = 412,000
Average number of children fallen from 2.9 - 1.6

New child support scheme

Advertisements influence on the family structure
To stabilise food and water supplies

decreased population by 400 million

Increase in abortions and steralisations

A family living in the countryside

Punishment for breaking the policy

Impact on female births

Sex ratio
Legislation in workplace
Covers the standard care
E.g. drinking water, room size and place
Equal Pay
From 1970- Present
"Means people should be paid the same regardless of their gender."
Sex Discrimination Act
From 1975-Present
"Women and men , including transsexual people, have the right not to be discriminated against at work because of their sex. "
Average earnings of women and men in the
UK 2010
Women in the workplace
Feminism View
Employment is an opportunities for women to escape from unpaid labour in family.

Women's work choice are more likely to be cleaning and caring; their tradition domestic roles.
In class
Tuition
Inactive Experience
Gender Modeling
Gender is a social construct- influenced by social and / or cultural distinctions
Children are being shaped by adults and peer' behaviour.
Family Dynamics
Equality
Feminism
Gender Stereotype
No.19 India
No.3 United kingdom
No.1 Canada
One Child Policy

Women's Rights = Human Rights
Social Cognitive Theory
Social learning theories of gender identity
Women and men filled separate spheres
Lives spent at home
Household chores; cooking, cleaning and washing
Child rearing
Free time spent maintaining the family
Little opportunity for education
"Why more men should fight for women's rights"
References
Glass Ceiling Effect
G20 Countries - Women's Rights
Key Definitions
Is gender equality an issue today?
Shift in the Traditional - Rights
Family Dynamics
Gender Identity
One Child Policy
Shift in the Traditional - Stereotypes
Women in the Workplace
Legislation
Average Earnings
Shift in the Traditional
Shift in the Traditional
Glass Ceiling Effect
G20 Poll
Media's Influence
Celebrities Influence
UN Women/HeforShe
Why more men should fight for women's rights
Evaluation
Summary
References
Summary
Gender equality: why women are still held back:
Media's Influence
The mass media had created a potential for influencing people
People mainly obtain information from the media

The critical terms that media have used to describe women
For example, Pixar a movie production company which mainly focus on males.

Negative consequences
Body images
"The growing employment of women has reduced the separation, particular in the middle class."

Less change in the working class
Baldwin, K. (2012) Thomson Reuters Foundation. Available from: http://www.trust.org/item/20120613010100-sk134/?source=spotlight [Accessed 11 March 2015].

Bechdel Test (2015) Bechdel Test Movie List. Available from: http://bechdeltest.com/ [Accessed 11 March 2015].

Boyd, K. (2008) Glass Ceiling. In: Schaefer, R. Encyclopaedia of Race, Ethnicity and Society [online]. [Accessed 11 March 2015].

Brewer, H. (2015) Health Guidance: Health Guidance for Better Health. Available from: http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/15910/1/List-of-Gender-Stereotypes.html [Accessed 11 March 2015].

Business Case Studies (2015) Health and safety in the workplace. Available From: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/unison/health-and-safety-in-the-workplace/health-safety-legislation.html#axzz3TSLna6lc [Accessed 10 March 2015]

CFLP. (2012) A brief history of divorce. Cambridge Family Law Practise. Available at: http://www.cflp.co.uk/a-brief-history-of-divorce/ [Accessed: 8 March 2015].

China’s One Child Policy (2015) China’s One-Child Policy & Forgotten Females. Available from: http://www.cominghomecrazy.weebly.com/forgotten-females.html [Accessed 3 March 2015]

Clarke, L. (1997) Who are fathers? A socio-economic profile. Leeds: Family Policy Services.

David Perfect (2011) Gender Pay Gaps. Available From: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/documents/research/gender_pay_gap_briefing_paper2.pdf [Accessed 10 March 2015]

Equality and Human Right Commission (2009). Creating a fairer Britain. Available from: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/your-rights/equal-rights/gender/sex-discrimination-your-rights-at-work/equal-pay/equal-pay-your-rights [Accessed 10 March 2015]

Fulcher, J., Scott,J. (2011) Sociology. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press

Frankel, L. (2004) Nice Girls Don’t Get the Corner Office. New York: Time Warner Book Group.

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HeForShe (2014) A Solidarity Movement for Gender Equality. Available from: http://www.heforshe.org/ [Accessed 4 March 2015]

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Were seen and not heard
Only became a monarch due to accidents of birth or death of male heirs
Evaluation
Historically - Economically, socially and emotionally dependent

Women have fought for their rights throughout history

Organisation such as UN Women strive for global gender equality.
(Gillibrand, R., Lam, V., O’Donnell, V., 2011)
(Radek, K., 2008)
(Brewer, H., 2015)
(Boyd, K., 2008)
(Baldwin, K., 2012)
Jones, O. (2015) Why more men should fight for women's rights. The Guardian [online]. 12 March. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/feb/24/men-women-masculinity-feminism?CMP=share_btn_link
(Jones, 2015)
(Trueman, 2000)
(UK Parliament, 2010) (CFLP, 2012)
(Clarke, 1997)
(Karabin, 2007)
(Moore, 2014)
(UN Women, 2014)
(The Kings Fund, 2015)
(Rossi, 2006)
(Equality and Human Right Commission,2009)
(Equality and Human Right Commission, 2009)
(Equality and Human Right Commission, 2009)
Fulcher and Scott 2011 p.297
(Mcsweeney, 2012)
Full transcript