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GCE Product Design - 3D - Design and Market Influences - Section B
Transcript of GCE Product Design - 3D - Design and Market Influences - Section B
Design & Market
Products are superseded
almost as soon as they are launched. The past 80 years have shown the most significant development
1940's & 1950's
available in the 1920's.
Due to early electronics
such as thermionic valves, resistors and capacitors they
were very expensive - the equivalent of a couple of months wages although by today's standard the signal would have been very poor
being made from
plastics such as Bakelite
for knobs and dials
About this time the transistor was introduced. This revolutionised the electronics industry as they needed considerable less power allowing the number of components to be reduced and allowing the use of batteries.
The miniturisation of electronic components began as technology evolved from copper wires to circuit boards
The sound quality was improving by the 1960's. The cases were being made much more cheaply so were very often covered in a mock leather fabric to
improve its aesthetics
By the 1970's
the increased use
of thermoplastics such
as acrylic and ABS. There
introduction allowed the
process of injection moulding to be used in the manufacture of the radio case.
The increased minaturisation of the electronic components allowed the sizes to continue to reduce
Integrated circuits were being more commonly used that required less power so smaller power supplies
Some radios were small
enough to fit in your
introduction of the
microchip in the 70's revolutionised the
Aerials were replaced by the wires to the headphones.
GUI (graphical user interface) LCD (liquid crystal display)
The microchip gives us the ability to shuffle songs
Sound quality continues to evolve as does every
of the MP3
MP3 is a method of audio file compression. When MP3's were first launched in the 90's they were slow to take off, tapes and CD's kept the population happy! It wasn't until personal computers and the internet became more widespread that MP3 started to catch the eye of the consumer.
Between 1990 and 2003 most downloads were illegal! Apple launched i-tunes music store, this made legitimate music downloads available and significantly contributed to the ipod being one of the most popular electronic devices of all time
Batteries are made up essentially of two electrodes in an electrolyte. They can be acids, alkalines or salts.
and the TV
Televisions have been around for nearly 100 years. The most common type was analogue which has recently been replaced by digital. This has allowed an image that is more stable with very high resolution. HDTV is now also common
Technological development in the telephone
The telephone has been around since 1876. It started life as a series of dots and dashes. Telephones were wired to each other rather than a network.
By 1900 telephones were becoming slightly portable.
In the 1920's bakelite enables new shapes to be developed. By the 1960;s other polymers were being used
By the 1970's and 80's microchip technology was on the up and this again impacted technology Cordless phones were introduced in the 80's via an analogue signal, digital started to take over in the 90's
Mechanics to Electronics
and Interlinked Products
Technology now allows products to communicate with each other
We have the freedom to work, exchange information, shop or simply keep in touch while
on the move
The internet was originally devised to allow communication to carry on in despite of a nuclear attack in the 1960's. The public face of the internet was invented by a scientist in 1989 when he was looking for a better way to share and communicate his ideas, so he used hypertext.
The internet evolves everyday,
Radio Frequency Identification Tags
Electronic tags that can be attached to products that contain information
They are robust
They can be scanned from a distance
Active tags have their own power supply - smart shelves can read the tag as a product is removed and automatically maintain the stock levels
Fluidic self assembly
Nanoblocks (tiny circuits) floated in a suspension liquid. This is spread over a substrate that has holes in its surface matching the shape of the circuit.
These settle and self align
It makes it possible to manufacture flat screen monitors and HDTV screens
We have discussed minaturisation of electronics. Nanotechnology involves working on materials at the atomic level - Nanotechnology can be defined as the manipulation and rearrangement of individual atoms to create useful materials, systems and devices
Inflation of airbags, lightness in materials , durability of bumpers, easier to paint
Stain resistance, water repellent
bone substitutes, water fileters, operations
Product Life Cycles
Life Cycle Factors
Changes in materials and technology
Changes in consumer demand
What the product is
How technically complex the product is
This is when the product is released - there will be initial costs and profit will be minimal until product launches and becomes recognisable and popular by the consumer
As advertising takes effect and consumers see the benefits - sales start to rise - steady increase in profits
At this point competitors will start to launch similar products
Sales begin to level off - competitors are making sales
At this point, developed products are released building on the original or superseding it
The market is saturated - everyone that wanted one, has one!!!
Companies decide now to take reduced profits or discontinue the product
Companies will then hope that the technology push will take over
To maintain a steady volume of sales
To maintain market advantage
Companies deliberately keep their product life cycle short - they supersede them before they need to - they persuade you, you need a better one
Built in Obsolescence - products that can only be used once - syringes, keeping costs low -
such as making cars from more durable
materials would raise costs
A study of manufactured
products and systems
Appraisal of functional, aesthetic, technical and economic considerations in the design and manufacture of products, considering aspects of their physical surroundings as shaped by designers, craftsmen and technologists
otherwise known as
(same thing just different
The Influence of
Design and Technology
Role of the Designer
The Marketing Function
How Designing starts
When an existing design proves to be unsatisfactory
To make money
Wanting to help others
Exploration of Science and technology
The design process you know like the back of your hand - its the order of your coursework
3D & Computer
Health & Safety
Safety legislation and manufacturing
The British Standards Institution is an organisation that documents UK national standards for quality and safety in products and services. BSI also represents the UK in European (CEN) and international (ISO) standards production.
Companies can pay to have their products tested against national or international standards, and if they meet the standard requirements, and their production processes have been assessed and comply with regulations, they can be awarded the BSI Kitemark. The company is issued a licence to use the Kitemark on its products.
This symbol of quality and safety helps to assure consumers they are buying a safe and consistent product.
Companies registered with BSI have their product and their production process regularly tested.
= a document assessing the type of hazard, the level of risk and who be affected by the hazard.
It contains a description of control measures that will be taken to minimise the risk associated with using specific materials and manufacturing processes.
Risk Assessment Example
Risk assessments can be applied to both the design and manufacture of products, and the outcome of these risk assessments can determine things such as the physical appearance, the materials, components and finishes used, the method of manufacture and consumer advice issued with products.
A document assessing
the type of hazard,
the level of risk,
who might be affected by the hazard.
a description of control measures taken to minimise the risk associated with using specific material and manufacturing processes.
Health & Safety Executive (
What they are =A government advisory service that helps companies meet health and safety obligations under the Health and Safety at Work Act.
What they do = The HSE publishes safety posters, books and copies of specific Health and Safety legislation. Local HSE officers visit employees to check they are complying with regulations and to investigate accidents.
The CE mark
The European Community Directive
Products that meet the relevant EU directives can display the CE mark. It mns that the product can be sold in the EU. Manufactuers wishing to display the CE mark on their proeucts usually have them tested by the BSI. On passing the tests they can display both symbols and assure consumers that they are buying safe product
The CE mark
The European Community Directive
Products that meet the relevant EU directives can display the CE mark.
It means that the product can be sold in the EU.
Manufactures wishing to display the CE mark on their products usually have them tested by the BSI. On passing the tests they can display both symbols and assure consumers that they are buying safe product
There is specific legislation to protect employees involved in manufacturing. The ones are the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, the Personal Protective Clothing Regulations 2002, and the
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations COSHH
2002. Generally this legislation is design to protect employees in the workplace.
Under this legislation, employers are generally obliged to do the following:
Make the workplace safe and free from risks to health
Ensure machinery is sage and sage working practices are followed.
Ensure dangerous items and substances are removed and stored safely
Provide sufficient welfare facilities
Provide information, training and supervision as necessary for health and safety.
Safety in Manufacture
Employees undertake safety courses and are tested against Health & Safety Executive (HSE)
Guarding of machines
Most machines under HSE regulations are guarded to prevent employees hurting themselves. Cutting, pressing, exposure to UV
To stop RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury) employees can be rotated to another production process.
Overalls, dust masks , safety boots, goggles.
Dust extraction is particulary important when machining composites such as MDF, carbon fibre reinforced plastic.
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
A calculation of how hazardous a process is compared to injury and frequency.
Regulations dealing with the safe handling, use and storage of hazardous materials.
Safety and the User
There are a range of consumer protection law determined and enforced by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the European Union.
The Trading Standards Agency is responsible for the day to day enforcement of consumer safety law. Trading Standards officers have the power to remove unsafe products from the market and prosecute offenders.
The EU have put in place a number of Product Directives e.g.
General product safety
Noise emission from domestic products
Low voltage electrical equipment
Consumer safety is a vital consideration in product design.
For one of the following, explain what issues must be considered to ensure safe use of the product.
The Work of
Past and Present
Arts & Crafts
1929 - 1945
Designers of the 21st Century
Late 19th Century in Britain Victorian
Nostalgic return to simple, honest craftsmenship that was once available
Victorian Age, great ornamentation and decoration
For manufacturers, decoration allowed an object to look more expensive than it really was
For customers, elaborate decoration symbolised respect, and therefore wealth in an age where the financial system was dependent on trust
Forms were taken from nature
Curvy, feminine, sensual, inspired from insects, flowers, birds
Influenced by a set of principles
'form follows function' a product should function well and its appearance should be influenced by what it does
'Everyday objects for everyday people' products should be affordable for everyone
'Products for a machine age' products should be designed to be made using modern materials in mechanised processes
'geometrically pure forms' design should be vertical, horizontal, organised using
Standardisation & Mass Production
Industrial revolution, technological revolution and modern materials like cast iron
Britain led the way in mass production machinery
Wedgewoods factory was one of the first for mechanisation of the pottery industry
USA specialised in division of labour (different people doing different jobs to achieve speed, efficiency and standaridisation/interchangeable parts (Ford Model T replaced horse and cart)
Colt revolver made from machined parts
Industrial design was born
Advertisers, illustrators, engineers, products were promoted and distinguishable
What is streamlining?
Speed and efficiency, time/energy saving
How is it achieved in a product?
Smooth curves, rounded edges, low horizontal profiles, elimination of unnecessary details, minimalism, resembling forms from nature
Aesthetics rather than function of a product
Ornamental finishes to enhance aesthetics
Design to appeal to fashion, popular consumerism, youth culture
Borrow and mix styles from other periods, i.e. ancient egyptians
Draw on influences from the media, fashion
and use of everyday materials
Maximum impact rather
Pop Art is a movement
that began in Germany in the
1950's but had its most famous practitioners - at least in this country - in Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein
Lichenstein's broad lines and 'Ben Day' dots can be seen frequently in ads and on magazine covers today
Part 1 - Taking inspiration
aesthetics rather than function of a product
Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time. Generally, it is "the right to copy", but also gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the work to other forms, who may perform the work, who may financially benefit from it, and other, related rights.
Copyright initially was conceived as a way for government to restrict printing; the contemporary intent of copyright is the promoting the creation of new works by giving authors control of and profit from them.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention.
The procedure for granting patents, the requirements placed on the patentee and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims defining the invention which must be new, inventive and useful or industrially applicable.
What? Copyright protects creative or artistic works
literature, including novels, instruction manuals, computer programs, song lyrics, newspaper articles, website content and some types of database
art, including paintings, engravings, photographs, sculptures, collages, architecture, technical drawings, diagrams, maps and logos
layouts, used to publish a work, for a book
recordings, of a work, including sound and film
broadcasts, of a work
© Copyright applies to any medium; you must not reproduce copyright protected work in another medium without permission. You do not have to apply for copyright.
Patents - £££
What? protects new inventions and covers how things work, what they do, how they do it, what they are made of and how they are made. It gives the owner the right to prevent others from making, using, importing or selling the invention without permission.
It must have an new inventive step that is not obvious to someone with knowledge and experience in the subject
be capable of being
in some kind of industry
Must not be
a scientific or mathematical discovery, theory or method
a method of medical treatment or diagnosis
against public policy or morality
* A patent must be renewed every year after the 5th year for up to 20 years protection
Product Development and improvement
Design in the Human Context
AQA - Specification states:-
"Critical assessment of products in everyday use, whether hand or machine made, according to relevant criteria, practical and aesthetic.
Examination of alternative designs and redesigning existing products."
With reference to two different products explain how product development and design
innovation have ensured success for the manufacturer.
In your answer you should refer to
the influence of trends and fashion.
(2 x 14 marks)
‘Between two objects equal in function and cost, the more beautiful sells’
The above statement was Raymond Loewy’s definition of good design.
With reference to a range of specific products explain how aesthetics have played an important part in their success.
These pictures show a traditional metal grater and a modern polymer grater.
Compare and contrast these two graters.
You should make reference to the use of
materials and how these have affected:
the method of manufacture
the function and use of the product.
Just for fun... :-)
AQA Specification states:-
"Human needs and the effects of products and systems on society"
Many products require re-design or modification to suit the specific needs of consumer groups such as the elderly or those with a disability.
With reference to a specific product, explain the changes which could be made in order
to suit the needs of a specific consumer group.
Use diagrams where necessary.
& Human Factors
Ergonomics & Anthropometrics
Ergonomics concerns the interaction between the human body and products, systems or environments. Products designers are particularly concerned with making products that are easy to use
Anthropometrics involves using body sizes to improve the ergonomics in products, systems and environments.
Anthropometric data taken from the measurements of hundreds of volunteers is normally recorded as percentiles
Average = 50th percentile
Most design activity is for the body sizes between the 5th and 95th percentile, which would take in the majority of the population
You need to be able to critically analyse a range of products in terms of their ergonomics and anthropometrics
Products are designed to meet specific criteria to re the outcome fulfils the original need
Development and Prototyping
Designs are defined with attention to styling, function, manufacturing costs
Products are inspected for imperfections
Random samples are tested
Choose a product and discuss the specifics of how QA and QC are applied
Sustainability & Environmental Concerns
Manufacturers and retailers are becoming increasingly concerned with the impact that their products make on the environment
1 - Government and International Law
2 - Consumers are more environmentally aware
Environmental Legislation & Regulation
End-of-Life Vehicle Directive
Ecolabel is an EU voluntary scheme to allow manufacturers to label their products if they have a reduced impact on the environment in their life cycle
All electrical appliances are labeled with their rating to allow consumers to make an educated choice
Encourages manufacturers to develop electrical and electronic products that can be dismantled and the parts reused or recycled
The directive also requires manufacturers to include instructions to not discard the products but take them to WEEE collection points - they also have to arrange collection of the WEEE
A directive to ban hazardous materials and chemicals such as lead, mercury and cadmium in electrical and electronic equipment to safeguard human health when the electrical equipment is disposed of and recycled
A directive to encourage manufacturers to reuses and recycle waste from vehicles when they reach the end of their life. Restricts toxic metal in new cars and plastic parts have to be labeled to help with recycling
Sets targets for the reduction of packaging by means of designing out waste in the initial packaging design, recycling and re-use. It also limits the toxic materials that can be used
Design to reduce the impact on the environment by using recycled materials in the manufacture of products
The main function of a product is analysed and a more environmentally sound method of performing the same function is sought. Often has wider socio-economic benefits such as welfare and safety for workers making it, fair trade etc.
A radical approach that goes beyond sustainable design to look for new ways of doing things using a mix of products and services
eg rather than a home having a washing machine, a community based laundry collects your washing and your recycling using bio-diesel vehicles and then cleans the clothes using renewable energy systems. Your clean clothes then get returned along with your weekly food shop!
This goes further than green design. Designers and manufacturers will try and reduce the impact of a product through its entire life cycle
1 & 3
Give an example of a product produced by a typical designer/maker. What scale of production are designer/ makers associated with? – 2mins
Briefly describe the relationship between the product user, designers, and makers. – 5mins
– cultural influences (customs in different countries)
– production methods (cheap labour), use of CAD/CAM and effects on jobs
– cost of buying products, the cost of making (fair trade)
– the manufacturing of products, the use and life cycle of products
Responsibilities as a Designer
AQA requirement - The interface between client/designer/manufacturer/user
Moral, economic, social and environmental
The Role of the Designer
The individual or group who generate the ideas – these are communicated in visual forms such as sketches and models
In the commercial world, product designers might often take an idea originally created by an inventor and develop it into a product that will see
Makers will manufacture products they are given that have already been designed
Could be the same company, could be an outsider
Global manufacturing is becoming increasing common due to the world wide web
The designer is the person or group who will be responsible for developing a new product for a client
The designer will generate a design brief and work through the design process to create a product that is wanted and needed
The individual or group that will be using the product
Identified through research and target markets
This is where the designer and maker are the same person
eg craft workers, jewellery designers, potters, costume makers
Could be an individual or a group who identify a niche in the market that could be met by developing a new product
Initially money is usually the main reason but sometimes its style and need
The client will be the person or group who commissions a designer or designers to develop a product
Roles in the design process. Describe the difference between a ‘client’ and ‘user’.
Give an example of a product produced by a typical designer/maker. What scale of production are designer/ makers associated with?
Briefly describe the relationship between the product user, designers, and makers.
In order for a designer to compose a ‘marketing mix’, what seven nine factors need to be considered.
Effective marketing targets the needs, aspirations, and tastes of different parts of society so that the product is attractive and desirable to them. How would a designer or organisation use a consumer profile to help them form a brief and specification for a product design. Describe the following terms: a) Demographic trends, b) socio economic groups.
What four factors influence or stimulate designing. Give an example of a product that was designed or invented as a result of each factor.
Describe why the majority of product design takes place within companies or organisations.
Does technology lead design or does design lead technology? Discuss
What are the key factors in terms of the influence technology has on design and society?
Influence of technology on society
Designers identify the opportunity to develop new products based on technology push or market pull. Technology push or market pull.
Technology push is when products are re-designed because of changes in materials or manufacturing methods. This might mean that new materials have become available, with improved properties; or that improvements in manufacturing processes mean a manufacturer can make the product cheaper or more efficiently, which reduces manufacturing costs.
Market pull is when product ideas are produced in response to market forces. Examples of market influences include:
A demand from consumers for new or improved products.
A competing product is launched by another manufacturer.
A manufacturer wants to increase their share of the market.
Sometimes a designer will design a new or improved product simply because they believe that the very existence of the product will create market pull. Designs like this may succeed or fail, depending on consumer demand, how innovative the product is, and the state of the market.
Influence of technology on society
When considering designs’ influence it is important to consider all aspects and from every side.
What is the effect on society?
Of a commuter using a car to travel with?
Influence of design
Maslow human needs in descending order:-
Belonging and love needs
Need for self actualisation
These needs need to be met. Designers and technology aim to meet these needs and predicate what we will need in the future.
Influence of design and technology in society
Disabled Spaces, Wide spaces for wheelchair access
Same level as car park, ramps, steps, automatic doors
Wide enough, internal doors, refuge points
Disabled toilets, doors, sink level, lever taps, cubicle size
Call button height, door width, level buttons height, Braille, audible indicators, handrails
Some Adapted Products
Kettles with tipping devises
tap lever attachments
Easy access clothing fastenings
In an inclusive society, it is essential that designers take into account the different needs of different groups of people. People with physical disabilities is an example of one consumer group that designers look to create or adapt products.
Design for people with disabilities
Design and Market Influences Revision Quiz
The Relationship between the user, designers and makers
In the past the user wasn't really considered apart from some tweaks at the end of development. Now the user is usually the first port of call for a designer, this makes perfect sense as the designer can design something to meet that need.
Very few manufacturers sell directly to the public - they go through distributors who then buy and sell the products however it is very important that the makers understand their user and build up a relationship with them
Market research plays a key role in the relationship between users, designers and makers.
User profiles are created and used which is forms a representation of the target market; this allows them to determine the needs and aspirations of the users they are designing for.
Consumer profiles gives designers an understanding of peoples lifestyles and buying habits which is then used to shape the appearance and quality of the product.
Consumer profiles also help designers when planning their advertising campaign
The Marketing Mix
In order to produce a design brief and specification, the decision makers in a company need to consider all the factors that affect the design, these factors are known as the marketing mix;
Product - function, performance, ease of use, reliability, aesthetics, compatibility
Price - main constraint
Place - location of manufacture and distribution
Promotion - packaging and promotional materials
Process - ease of purchase
Properties - aesthetic, environmental
Pleasure - added value
People - selling